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Abstract

Lead has long been considered as a toxic environmental pollutant that severely damages the central nervous system. In various neurogenerative diseases, actrocytes become activated by proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we investigated whether lead (Pb$^{2+}$) affects inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in activated glial cells. Rat primary glial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 ${\mu}$g/ml) plus IFN$_{\gamma}$(100 U/ml). Pre-treatment of Pb$^{2+}$ increased nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN$_{\gamma}$-stimulated glial cells. Lead itself, however, suppressed the basal production of NO in control glial cells. Addition of the iNOS inhibitors L-NAME (1 mM) and L-NNA (800 ${\mu}$M) prevented the Pb$^{2+}$-induced increase in NO production. Western blot analysis showed that pre-treatment of Pb$^{2+}$ augmented LPS/IFN$_{\gamma}$-induced increase in iNOS immunoreactivity, which was well correlated with the increased NO production. In addition, pre-treatment of Pb$^{2+}$ synergistically increased the iNOS mRNA expression induced by LPS and IFN${\gamma}$. The present results indicate that lead intoxication adversely affect brain function by potentiating iNOS expression and NO production in activated glial cells observed in various neurodegenerative diseases.

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