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Abstract

In the present study, attempts were made to cryopreserve sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina sperm in liquid nitrogen, to evaluate the effects of various cryoprotectants and freezing rates on motility, survival rate and fertilization rate of the post-thawing sperm, and the ultrastructural changes of sperm after cryopreservation were observed. The highest values of sperm motility (motility index: 3.3$\pm$0.37) and survival rate (72$\pm$3.5%) were obtained with 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and these values were significantly higher than those of sperm preserved with glycerol. Comparisons of motilities and survival rates between treatments of difference freezing rates showed that there was no difference between procedures (a) 5$0^{\circ}C$/min to -8$0^{\circ}C$ (motility index: 3.3$\pm$0.31 ; survival late 70$\pm$2.7%) and (b) 3$0^{\circ}C$/min to -8$0^{\circ}C$ (motility index: 3.1$\pm$0.29; survival rate 69$\pm$3.7%), while the results of (c) 1$0^{\circ}C$/min to -8$0^{\circ}C$ were significantly lower than the others (motility index: 2.2$\pm$0.33 ; survival rate 42$\pm$4.6%). There was no significant difference in fertilization rate between fresh sperm and sperm preserved with 15% DMSO as cryoprotectant and freezing rate (3$0^{\circ}C$/min to -8$0^{\circ}C$). Some ultrastructural changes of sperm, such as the detachment of plasma membrane, the destruction of mitochondria, and the flagellum rolling up head, were observed after cryopreservation. Morphological normality of the sperm in 15% DMSO frozen at the ratio of 5$0^{\circ}C$/min to -8$0^{\circ}C$ was better than the others.

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