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논문 상세정보

퇴적물내의 산소와 물 수송에 관한 습지 식물의 역할

Role of Wetland Plants as Oxygen and Water Pump into Benthic Sediments

초록

습지를 규정하는 주요한 특징의 하나인 습지식물은 장기간의 침수로 인해 혐기성 상태로 존재하는 습지 퇴적물에서 생존을 위한 특별한 적응방법을 발달시켰다. 식물체내에 넓게 분포하고 있는 다공성의 세포는 공기중의 산소를 뿌리로 운반하기 위한 통로로 작용하며, 농도차이에 의한 확산과 압력차이에 의한 대류에 의하여 산소가 운반되어진다. 이러한 식물체 내에서의 산소이동은 식물이 혐기성 퇴적물 속으로 뿌리를 내리고 생존하게 하는 주요한 기작이 된다. 뿌리로 이동되어진 산소는 혐기성 퇴적물로 확산되어져서 뿌리주변의 퇴적물은 산화상태로 변화시키고, 뿌리의 호흡, 미생물의 호흡, 미생물에 의한 유기물 분해반응을 촉진시키게 된다. 또한 습지식물은 생장에 필요한 수분을 뿌리로 흡수하며, 이는 지표수와 퇴적물내 공극수가 뿌리주변으로 이동하게 되는 추진력이 된다. 습지 퇴적물은 식물의 사체에서 기인하는 유기물에 의해 수리학적 전도도가 작아서 퇴적물내 물의 움직임이 미미하나, 식물에 의한 물의 흡수는 퇴적물내 물의 움직임을 촉진시키게 된다. 이러한 식물의 특별한 적응기작은 해부학적, 형태학적, 생리학적으로 많은 연구가 수행되어져 왔으나, 이러한 적응기작들에 퇴적물내 생지화학적 반응에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구는 미비한 수준에 머물러있다. 퇴적물내 생지화학적 반응들은 수체에서 유입된 미량 오염물질의 이동 및 변형과정에 영향을 미치게 되므로 식물의 작용에 의한 생지화학적 반응의 변화들은 미량 오염물질의 거동에 영향을 미치게 되며 나아가 수자원과 수질 생태계에 영향을 초래하게 된다. 따라서 식물의 존재와 성장에 따른 퇴적물내 생지화학적 반응의 변화는 생태학적 환경에서 습지의 중요성을 인식하는데 필요한 연구과제라 사료된다. 난이도, 변별도 등에서 유사하므로 당분간 계속 사용하여도 될 것이다. 따른 변화(變化)는 볼 수 없었다. ATP 첨가(添加)로서는 0.30mM의 농도(濃度)에서 0.15 mM의 농도(濃度)에 비(比)하여 Young 율(率)이 낮았다. 3) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 종절편(縱切片)의 Young 율(率)은 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水)에 둔 군(群)에서는 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 각각(各各) 2.12, 2.48 및 $2.46{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$으로서 실험초기(實驗初期)에 비(比)하여 후기(後期)에서 Young 율(率)이 약간(若干) 높은 경향(傾向)을 나타내었고, 이러한 경향(傾向)은 ATP의 첨가(添加)로서도 비슷하였다.수량(收量)과 자실체형성(子實體形成) 소요일(所要日)의 관점(觀點)에서 보면 C/N율(率) 30.46이 어느정도 적당(適當)한 것 같다. 4. Thiamine $50{\mu}g%,\;KH_2PO_4$ 0.2%, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$$0.02{\sim}0.03%$일때 균사(菌絲)와 자실체(子實體) 생육(生育)이 우수(優秀)하였으며 미량원소(微量元素)로서는 $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$,\;ZnSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$$MnSO_4{\cdot}5H_2O$가 공존(共存)하면 생육촉진(生育促進)의 상승효과(相乘效果)가 인정되었으나 3이원소(元素)중 Mn이 결핍(缺乏)하면 균사(菌絲)와 자실체(子實體)의 생육(生育)이 다소 저하되었다. 이들 염류(鹽類)의 최적농도(最適濃度)는 각각 0.02mg%이었다. 5.

Abstract

Wetland plants have evolved specialized adaptations to survive in the low-oxygen conditions associated with prolonged flooding. The development of internal gas space by means of aerenchyma is crucial for wetland plants to transport $O_2$ from the atmosphere into the roots and rhizome. The formation of tissue with high porosity depends on the species and environmental condition, which can control the depth of root penetration and the duration of root tolerance in the flooded sediments. The oxygen in the internal gas space of plants can be delivered from the atmosphere to the root and rhizome by both passive molecular diffusion and convective throughflow. The release of $O_2$ from the roots supplies oxygen demand for root respiration, microbial respiration, and chemical oxidation processes and stimulates aerobic decomposition of organic matter. Another essential mechanism of wetland plants is downward water movement across the root zone induced by water uptake. Natural and constructed wetlands sediments have low hydraulic conductivity due to the relatively fine particle sizes in the litter layer and, therefore, negligible water movement. Under such condition, the water uptake by wetland plants creates a water potential difference in the rhizosphere which acts as a driving force to draw water and dissolved solutes into the sediments. A large number of anatomical, morphological and physiological studies have been conducted to investigate the specialized adaptations of wetland plants that enable them to tolerate water saturated environment and to support their biochemical activities. Despite this, there is little knowledge regarding how the combined effects of wetland plants influence the biogeochemistry of wetland sediments. A further investigation of how the Presence of plants and their growth cycle affects the biogeochemistry of sediments will be of particular importance to understand the role of wetland in the ecological environment.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

  1. Lee, Jung-Joon ; Lee, Jung-Ho 2009. "Dynamics of the Phytoplankton Community in Upo Wetland." 한국하천호수학회지= Korean journal of limnology, 42(2): 232~241 

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