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Abstract

Zygotic embryos were excised from immature and mature seeds of the Himalayan yew, Taxus wallichiana. The embryos germinated precociously when kept in darkness for 5 weeks and developed into full seedlings within 10-12 weeks. The highest rate of embryo germination ($81\%$) was obtained in modified Lloyd & McCown' s woody plant medium containing macro and micronutrients at half strength supplemented with $1\%$ activated charcoal, which supported both the best embryonic growth ($43\%$) and seedling development ($32\%$). However, the supplementation of basal media with kinetin, thidiazuron, 6-benzyl aminopurine or $GA_3$ had no effect on the germination of the embryos. The embryos derived from immature seeds germinated but the frequency of embryonic growth was better in mature seeds. Stratification of seeds effected precocious germination of embryos. Seeds kept at $4^{\circ}C$ for 1 week germinated earlier and at a higher frequency irrespective of the stage of seed maturity, while the germination rate declined with prolonged cold treatment for 1 month at that same temperature. Analysis of taxanes in germinating seedlings revealed that root tissues contained high levels of taxol, 10-deacetyl-baccatin ill and baccatin ill as compared to shoots. Thus embryo culture technique appears to overcome the lengthy dormancy requirement of T. wallichiana seeds.

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