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Abstract

Objectives : Iron (Fe) is an essential element in biological processes; however excessive Fe is harmful to human health. Some air pollutants contain a high level of Fe, and the human lung could therefore be over-exposed to Fe through inhaled air pollutants. This study was performed to investigate the role of metal transporters (divalent metal transporter 1, DMT1, and metal transporter protein 1, MTP1) in the lung under the environments of Fe deficiency in the body and Fe over-exposure in the lung. Methods : Rats were fed Fe deficient (FeD, 2-6 mg Fe/kg) or Fe supplemented (FeS, 120 mg Fe/kg) diet for 4 weeks, followed by a single intratracheal instillation of ferrous sulfate at low (10 mg/kg) or high (20 mg/kg) dose. Fe concentration was analyzed in the serum, lung and liver, and histopathological findings were observed in the lung at 24 hours after Fe administration. The level of DMT1 and MTP1 expression in the lung was analyzed by RT-PCR. Also, the effect of Fe deficiency in the body was evaluated on the level of Fe concentration and metal transporters compared to FeS-diet fed rats at the end of 4-week FeD or FeS diet. Results : The 4-week FeD diet in rats induced an Fe deficiency anemia with decreased serum total Fe, increased unsaturated Fe binding capacity and hypochromic microcytic red blood cells. The concentration of Fe in the lung and liver was lower in the FeD-diet fed rats than in the FeS-diet fed rats. The level of metal transporters mRNA expression was higher in the FeD-diet fed rats than in the FeS-diet. The concentration of Fe in the lung was increased in a dose-dependent pattern after intratracheal instillation of Fe into the rats, while the level of Fe in the serum and liver was not increased in the low-dose Fe administered rats. Therefore, DMT1 and MTP1 mRNA was highly expressed in both FeD-diet and FeS-diet fed rats, after intratracheal instillation of Fe. Conclusions : DMT1 and MTP1 mRNA were more highly expressed in FeD-diet fed rats than in FeS-diet fed rats. The over-exposure of Fe intratracheally induced high expression of metal transporters and increased Fe deposition in the lung in both FeD-diet and FeS-diet fed rats, but did not increase the Fe level of the serum and liver in low-dose Fe administered rats. These results suggest that the role of metal transporters in the lung might be different in a part from the duodenum under the environment of over-exposure to Fe.

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