The goal of this research is to confirm reliable durability and evaluate the engine performance of the current aluminum alloy piston and the newly developed steel forging piston. For such purpose, the test environment was built with 2.91 target engine mounted on the engine dynamometer and additional exhaust gas analysis system. Using the test environment, engine performance test was conducted, and durability test was also conducted using a dedicated piston durability test equipment for 400,000 km. As a result of the experiment, similar durability was appeared for both aluminum piston and steel piston, and the engine output power and torque are slightly reduced because of $158\%$ heavier weight of the steel piston compare to the aluminum alloy piston.
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