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Abstract

Statement of problem. Wear as a result of repeated closing/opening cycles may decrease the friction coefficient of screw head, threads, and other mating components and, consequently, resistance to opening gradually decreases. It may cause screw loosening, which is one of the most common failures in implant prosthesis. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes on the head and thread surface of the abutment screws after repeated closing and opening through the examination of tested screws in SEM(scanning electron microscope). Materials and methods. Five species of abutments were selected (3i-three, Avana-two) respectively by two pieces. The implant fixtures were perpendicularly mounted in liquid unsaturated polyesther(Epovia, Cray Valley Inc.) with dental surveyor. Each abutment was secured to the implant fixture by each abutment screw with recommended torque value using a digital torque controller. The abutment screws were repeatedly tightened and removed 20 times with a digital controller. FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope, Netherland, Phillips co., model:XL 30 SFEG) was used to observe changes of each part caused by repeatedly closing/opening expeiment. First, the Photomicrographs of pre-test screws provided by each manufacturer were taken. The changes of each screw were investigated after every fifth closing and opening experiment with FESEM. Scaning electron microscope photomicrographs of each screw were taken four times. Results. As the number of closing and opening was increased, the wear or distortion of hexed or squared slot that contacted with the driver tip was more severely progressed. Wear or distortion of hexed slot was more severe than that of squared slot and it was more remarkable in the titanium screw than in the gold screw. All the tested screws showed that the width in the crest of their screw thread decreased gradually as the test was proceeded. Conclusions. Conclusively, we recommend the clinical use of gold screw, a periodic exchanges of abutment screws and avoiding repeated closing/opening unnecessarily. We also suggest a more careful manipulation of the abutment screw and screw-driver and using of abutment screw with an acute-angled slot design rather than an obtuse-angled one. Finally, it is suggested that the new slot design and the surface treatment for enduring wear or distortion should be devised.

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