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이탈리아 피렌체의 서민주거지역의 형성과 주거형식의 변화에 관한 연구

A Study on the Formation of Working-Class Residential Areas md the Transformation of Housing Types of Firenze, Italy

Abstract

This study provides a descriptive and analytical account of major aspects of urban development and transformation of housing types of Italian Firenze from the 13th century to the 19th century. It is a typo-morphological depiction of urban spatial structure of the extraordinary city, Firenze, the center of Italian Renaissance. And this study has proceeded on the assumption that the evolving form of the urban structure and housing types cannot be understood without reference to the larger context of political, economic, and social life. Based on these backgrounds, the purpose of this study is threefold: to provide a comprehensive discussion of general characteristics of urban spatial structure of Firenze, and to explain the process of formation of working-class neighborhoods by constructing new city wall in later 13th century, and to discuss transformation of housing types of the working-class neighborhood with understanding the mechanism of existence of housing in the newly formed residential neighborhoods. The development of residential neighborhoods was pursued by 'planned' manner through forming square-shaped blocks, and characterized by the subdivision of larger properties into standardized building lots for the construction of houses. On the bases of documentary evidences, several ecclesiastical institutions are identified as the agents of a distinctive type of development. While the institutions did the major role for developing lands, the construction of houses was done by small scale construction agents with moderate amount of properties. The major housing type of working-class neighborhoods of Firenze has been the 'casa a schiera' characterized by the form of narrow front and long depth. The type was generalized by the newly formed middle and working-class of Firenze which grew their body very rapidly, Even though the type assumed very uniform in its fen there were many variations. And through passing time, the casa a schiera developed to be multi-family housing, and the level of variation became deepen. Eventually, transformation of housing type of Firenze was ended by appearance of the 'casa in linea', which was very similar to modern apartment in its spatial organization.

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