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Abstract

The study purpose was to examine which factors including health perceptions & behaviors, psychosocial factors, dietary intakes were different by stages of change to reduce fast food consumption among university students. Survey data(n = 341) were analyzed using X$^2$ test or analysis of variance. With respect to stages of change, $17\%$ were in the precontemplation ; $21.4\%$ for contemplation, $19.7\%$ for preparation, 11.7% for action, and $30.2\%$ for the maintenance stage. Frequency of fast food consumption (p < 0.001), health status, interest toward health, and exercising behavior (p < 0.05) differed significantly by stages of change. Demographics and nutrient intakes, however, had no association with stages of change. Those in precontemplation through preparation stages felt more strongly on the advantages such as taste, satiety, cleanness of restaurants (p < 0.001), and diverse menus (p < 0.05). Compared to maintainers or actors, pre-contemplators agreed less to the disadvantages of eating fast foods, including sanitary problems (p < 0.001), overeating, indigestion, decreased vegetable intakes (p < 0.01) and loss of freshness (p < 0.05). Influence of significant others (e.g., friends, siblings, parents) significantly differed by stages of change. Compared with maintainers, those in preaction stages felt less control over facilitators or situations for fast food consumption. These included 'others like fast foods', 'providing standard meals', 'when I don't have foods for meals'(p < 0.001), availability, advertisement, 'socially popular', 'when I feel hungry'(p < 0.01), and 'when I don't like to prepare meals' (p < 0.05). These results suggested that nutrition education be planned considering one's stages of change for fast food consumption. For those in preaction stages, it is desirable to use motivational strategies to increase benefits and remove barriers of change, and help to develop skills to deal with situations or factors for fast food consumption. The support from friends or families is also needed to move to further stages.

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