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The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous extract of the root of Polygala tenuifolia ( AEPT) using an elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole-board apparatus in mice. The AFPT was orally administered at 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg to ICR mice, 1 h before the behavioral evaluation in the EPM respectively. Control mice were treated with an equal volume of saline, and positive control mice with buspirone (2 mg/kg). Single treatments of the AEPT significantly increased the percentage of time spent and arm entries into the open arms of the EPM vedrsus saline controls (P<0.05). Moreover, there were no changes in the locomotor activity and myorelaxant effects in any group compared with the saline controls. In the hole-board test,single treatments of the AEPT (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of headdips versus saline controls (P<0.05). In addition, the anxiolytic-like effects of the AEPT were blocked by WAY 100635(0.3mg/kg, I.p), a5-$HT_{1A}$ receptor antagonist not by flumazenil, a $GABA_{A}$ antagonist. These results indicate that P. tenuifolia is an effective anxiolytic agent, andsuggest that the anxiolytic-like effects of P. tenuifolia is mediated via the serotonergic nervous system.

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