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Recently, we reported that high extracellular calcium increased receptor activator of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL) expression via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) activation in mouse osteoblasts. However, the mechanism for p44/42 MAPK activation by high extracellular calcium is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of intracellular calcium increase in high extracellular calcium-induced RANKL induction and p44/42 MAPK activation. Primary cultured mouse calvarial osteoblasts were used. RANKL expression was highly induced by 10 mM calcium treatment. Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, also increased RANKL expression and activated p44/42 MAPK. U0126, an inhibitor of MEK1/2, an upstream activator of p44/42 MAPK, blocked the RANKL induction by both high extracellular calcium and ionomycin. High extracellular calcium increased the phosphorylation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), one of the known upstream regulators of p44/42 MAPK activation. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, did not block RANKL induction and p44/42 MAPK activation induced by high extracellular calcium. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, blocked the RANKL induction by high extracellular calcium. It also partially suppressed the activation of Pyk2 and p44/42 MAPK. Cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, also inhibited high calcium-induced RANKL expression in dose dependent manner. However, cyclosporin A did not affect the activation of Pyk2 and p44/42 MAPK by high extracellular calcium treatment. These results suggest that 1) the increase in intracellular calcium via IP3-mediated calcium release is necessary for RANKL induction by high extracellular calcium treatment, 2) Pyk2 activation, but not protein kinase C, following the increase in intracellular calcium might be involved in p44/42 MAPK activation, and 3) calcineurin-NFAT activation by the increase in intracellular calcium is involved in RANKL induction by high extracellular calcium treatment.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

  1. 2013. "" International journal of oral biology : official journal of the Korean Academy of Oral Biology and the UCLA Dental Research Institute, 38(1): 37~42 


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