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Abstract

Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is a circulating hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes. Several results suggest that leptin is important mediators of bone metabolism. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leptin on anti-osteoclastogenesis using murine precursors cultured on Ca-P coated plates and on the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoblastic cells. Additionally, this study examined the possible involvement of prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$/protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated signals on the effect of leptin on anti-osteoclastogenesis to various culture systems of osteoclast precursors. Osteoclast generation was determined by counting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive [TRAP (+)] multinucleated cells (MNCs). Osteoclastic activity was determined by measuring area of resorption pits formed by osteoclasts on Ca-P coated plate. The number of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol $(1,25[OH]_2D_3)$- or $PGE_2$-induced TRAP (+) MNCs in the mouse bone marrow cell culture decreased significantly after treatment with leptin. The number of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-induced TRAP (+) MNCs in M-CSF dependent bone marrow macrophage (MDBM) cell or RAW264.7 cell culture decreased significantly with leptin treatment. Indomethacin inhibited osteoclast generation induced by $1,25[OH]_2D_3$ and dexamethasone, however, no significant differences were found in the leptin treated group when compared to the corresponding indomethacin group. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, inhibited osteoclast generation induced by $1,25[OH]_2D_3$. The number of TRAP (+) MNCs decreased significantly with treatment by PMA at concentrations of 0.01 and $0.1{\mu}M$ in culture. Leptin inhibited PMA-mediated osteoclast generation. Isoquinoline-5-sulfonic 2-methyl-1-piperazide dihydrochloride (H7) had no effect on osteoclast generation induced by $1,25[OH]_2D_3$. Cell culture treatment with leptin resulted in no significant differences in osteoclast generation compared to the corresponding H7 group. Indomethacin showed no significant effect on TRAP (+) MNCs formation from the RAW264.7 cell line. PMA inhibited TRAP (+) MNCs formation induced by RANKL in the RAW264.7 cell culture. H7 had no effect on osteoclast generation from the RAW264.7 cell line. There was no difference compared with the corresponding control group after treatment with leptin. $1,25[OH]_2D_3$- or $PGE_2$-induced osteoclastic activity decreased significantly with leptin treatment at a concentration of 100 ng/ml in mouse bone marrow cell culture. Indomethacin, PMA, and H7 significantly inhibited osteoclastic activity induced by $1,25[OH]_2D_3$ in mouse bone marrow cell culture. No significant differences were found between the leptin treated group and the corresponding control group. The secretion of OPG, a substance known to inhibit osteoclast formation, was detected from the osteoblasts. Treatment by leptin resulted in significant increases in OPG secretion by osteoblastic cells. Taken these results, leptin may be an important regulatory cytokines within the bone marrow microenvironment.

주제어

#Leptin   #Osteoclast  

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