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Background: Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors activated by proteolytic cleavage. Trypsin-like serine proteases interact with PAR2 expressed by a variety of tissues and immune cells. The aim of our study was to investigate whether PAR2 stimulation can lead to the activation of human mac rophages. Methods: PAR2-mediated proliferation of human macrophage cell line THP-1 was measured with MTT assay. We also examined the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cytokine production induced by trypsin and PAR2-agonist using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results: Treatment of trypsin or PAR2-activating peptide increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and induced the activation of ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. In addition, trypsin-induced cell proliferation was inhibited by pretreatment of an ERK inhibitor (pD98059) or trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). Moreover, PAR2 activation by trypsin increased the secretion of TNF-${\alpha}$ in THP-1 cells. Conclusion: There results suggest that P AR2 activation by trypsin-like serine proteases can induce cell proliferation through the activation of ERK in human macrophage and that PAR2 may playa crucial role in the cell proliferation and cytokine secretion induced by trypsin-like serine proteases.

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