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We have evaluated the application of spectroscopy using an insertion-type fiber-optic probe and a sensor at wavelengths from 400 to 1,100 nm to the measurement of milk fat content on dairy farms. The internal reflectance ratios of 183 milk samples were determined with a fiber-optic spectrophotometer at 5$^{\circ}C$, 20$^{\circ}C$ and 40$^{\circ}C$. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop calibration models for the milk fat. The best accuracy of determination was found for an equation that was obtained using smoothed internal reflectance data and three PLS factors at 20$^{\circ}C$. The correlation coefficients between predicted and reference milk fat at 5$^{\circ}C$, 20$^{\circ}C$ and 40$^{\circ}C$ were r=0.753, r=0.796 and r=0.783, respectively. The predictive explained variances ($Q^2$) of the final model, moreover, were more than 0.550 at all temperatures, and the regression coefficients of determination ($R^2$) were more than 0.6 (60%). Our results indicate that milk has different internal reflectance measured in the range of visible and near infrared wavelengths (400 to 1,100 nm), depending on its fat content.

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