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New polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex B-G genes was investigated by amplification and digestion of a 401bp fragment including intron 1 and exon 2 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique with two restriction enzymes of Msp I and Tas I in eight breeds of Chinese indigenous chickens and one exotic breed. In the fragment region of the gene, three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected at the two restriction sites. We found the transition of two nucleotides of A294G and T295C occurred at Tas I restriction site, and consequently led to a non-synonymous substitution of asparagine into serine at position 54 within the deduced amino acid sequence of immunoglobulin variable-region-like domain encoded by the exon 2 of B-G gene. It was observed at rare frequency that a single mutation of A294G occurring at the site, also caused an identical substitution of amino acid, asparagine 54-to-serine, to that we described previously. And the transversion of G319C at Msp I site led to a non-synonymous substitution, glutamine 62-to-histidine. The new alleles and allele frequencies identified by the PCR-RFLP method with the two enzymes were characterized, of which the allele A and B frequencies at Msp I and Tas I loci were given disequilibrium distribution either in the eight Chinese local breeds or in the exotic breed. By comparison, allele A at Msp I locus tended to be dominant, while, the allele B at Tas I locus tended to be dominant in all of the breeds analyzed. In Tibetan chickens, the preliminary association analysis revealed that no significant difference was observed between the different genotypes identified at the Msp I and Tas I loci and the laying performance traits, respectively.

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