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Effect of Restrict Feeding, Roxarsone or Its Analogues in Inducing Fatty Livers in Mule Ducks

Abstract

This study is aimed at understanding the role of arsenic in Roxarsone in causing fatty livers in mule ducks. One hundred 10-week-old mule ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups. Ducks received 2 weeks of various treatments followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. The treatments were non-treatment (control), 300 mg/kg Roxarsone inclusion for 2 weeks ($1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ week), Roxarsone inclusion for one week ($2^{nd}$ week only), restrict feeding, or Roxarsone analogue (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl acid) inclusion. Results showed that feed intake and body weight in the Roxarsone groups and the restrict feeding group decreased significantly during the treatment period. However only the liver and heart weights were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the restrict feeding group. Fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activity showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the Roxarsone groups and the restrict feeding group, two-week-Roxarsone treatment significantly increased NADP-malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity compared to the restrict (p<0.05). After 2 weeks drug withdrawal, the 1-week-Roxarsone or restrict feeding group showed significantly increased (p<0.05) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity (p<0.05). Two-week-Roxarsone treatment significantly decreased (p<0.05) the high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased (p<0.05) the low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) ratio. After drug withdrawal, the 1-week-Roxarsone or restrict feeding group showed significantly increased (p<0.05) creatine kinase (CK) activity. The 2-week-Roxarsone treatment group showed significantly increased (p<0.05) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. The restrict feeding treatment group showed significantly decreased (p<0.05) total protein (TP) concentration. After drug withdrawal, the related enzyme activities in the blood that reflected the liver function were restored to the normal physiological range, except for the total bilirubin concentration and CK activity in the 1-week-Roxarsone group. This group showed a significant increase (p<0.05). Thus, the reasons for liver enlargement in the Roxarsone and restrict feeding groups were different.

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