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The feasibility of hydrogen production with a raw seed sludge through direct acclimation of feedstock was investigated at acidogenic stage, and methane was harvested at followed methanogenic stage in an anaerobic two-stage process. Hydrogen content was higher than 57% at all tested organic loading rates (OLRs) and the yield of hydrogen ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 mol H2/mol hexose consumed and peaked at 6 gVSl-1day-1. Normal butyrate and acetate were main volatile fatty acids (VFAs), whereas the concentration of propionate was insignificant. The hydrogen-producing bacteria, Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, was detected with strong intensity at all tested organic loading rates (OLRs) by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. From COD balance in the process, the fraction of the feed-COD converted to the hydrogen-COD at acidogenic stage ranged from 7.9% to 9.3% and peaked at 6 gVSl-1day-1, whereas the fraction of feed-COD converted to the methane-COD at methanogenic stage ranged from 66.2% to 72.3% and peaked at 3 gVSl-1day-1.

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