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We previously demonstrated the ability of ginseng saponins (active ingredients of Panax ginseng) to enhance $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current. The mechanism for this ginseng saponin-induced enhancement was proposed to be the release of $Ca^{2+}$ from $IP_{3}-sensitive$ intracellular stores through the activation of PTX-insensitive $G\alpha_{q/11}$ proteins and PLC pathway. Recent studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM) regulates $IP_{3}$ receptor-mediated $Ca^{2+}$ release in both $Ca^{2+}-dependent$ and -independent manner. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of CaM on ginseng saponin-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current responses in Xenopus oocytes. Intraoocyte injection of CaM inhibited ginseng saponin-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement, whereas co-injection of calmidazolium, a CaM antagonist, with CaM blocked CaM action. The inhibitory effect of CaM on ginseng saponin-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement was dose- and time-dependent, with an $IC_{50} of 14.9\pm3.5 {\mu}M$. The inhibitory effect of CaM on saponin's activity was maximal after 6 h of intraoocyte injection of CaM, and after 48 h the activity of saponin recovered to control level. The half-recovery time was calculated to be $16.7\pm4.3 h$. Intraoocyte injection of CaM inhibited $Ca^{2+}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement and also attenuated $IP_{3}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement. $Ca^{2+}$/CaM kinase II inhibitor did not inhibit CaM-caused attenuation of ginseng saponin-induced $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement. These results suggest that CaM regulates ginseng saponin effect on $Ca^{2+}$-activated $Cl^{-}$ current enhancement via $Ca^{2+}$-independent manner.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)

  1. 2011. "" Journal of ginseng research = 高麗人參學會誌, 35(1): 92~103 


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