An analytical method is presented to solve the elastodynamic problem of finitely long hollow cylinder subjected to torsional impact often occurs in engineering mechanics. The analytical solution is composed of a solution of quasi-static equation satisfied with the non-homogeneous boundary condition and a solution of dynamic equation satisfied with homogeneous boundary condition. The quasi-static solution is obtained directly by solving the quasi-static equation satisfied with the non-homogeneous boundary condition. The solution of the non-homogeneous dynamic equation is obtained by means of finite Hankel transform on the radial variable, r, Laplace transform on time variable, t, and finite Fourier transform on axial variable, z. Thus, the solution for finitely long, hollow cylinder subjected to torsion impact is obtained. In the calculating examples, the response histories and distributions of shear stress in the finitely long hollow cylinder subjected to an exponential decay torsion load are obtained, and the results have been analyzed and discussed. Finally, a dynamic finite element for the same problem is carried out by using ABAQUS finite element analysis. Comparing the analytical solution with the finite element solution, it can be found that two kinds of results obtained by means of two different methods agree well. Therefore, it is further concluded that the analytical method and computing process presented in the paper are effective and accurate.