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폐수 질산화 시스템에서 아질산 산화 미생물의 분포 특성 연구

A Study on the Distribution Characteristics of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria in Wastewater Nitrification Systems

초록

Genus Nitrospira와 Nitrobacter는 폐수 질산화 시스템의 대표적인 아질산 산화균으로 알려져 있다. Genus Nitrospira는 아질산 농도가 매우 낮은 조건에서도 이를 효율적으로 활용하는 K-strategists로 알려져 있는 반면에 Nitrobacter 종은 기질소비와 성장이 빠른 r-strategists로 알려져 왔다. 또한 유기물이나 용존산소도 아질산 산화균의 분포에 영향을 주는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 아질산과 유기물, 용존산소가 복합적으로 작용하는 질산화 시스템에서 아질산 산화균의 분포와 경쟁에 어떻게 영향을 받는지를 검토하였다. 이를 위하여 실험실 규모의 질산화 생물반응기와 질산화-탈질을 수행하는 $A_2O$ 계열의 실제 폐수처리장에서 여러 항목과 두 종류의 아질산 산화균 분포를 측정, 비교하였다. 그 결과 아질산 농도는 평균 5 mg-N/L로 유지되며, 호기조건에서 유기물이 매우 낮게 유지되는 실험실 질산화 생물반응기는 Nitrobacter가, 호기-무산소 조건에서 질산화-탈질이 일어나고 아질산이 거의 없는 상태이며 유기물이 비교적 높게 유지되는 $A_2O$ 폐수처리장은 Nitrospira가 우점종으로 분포하였다. 이것은 여러 인자가 복합적으로 작용하는 상태에서는 아질산 산화균의 분포가 유기물과 용존산소 보다는 아질산 농도가 가장 중요한 인자임을 보여주며 기질 친화도가 낮지만 반응속도가 빠른 Nitrobacter가 r-strategist, genus Nitrospira는 기질친화도가 높은 K-strategist인 특성을 보임을 확인하였다.

Abstract

Genus Nitrospira and Nitrobacter species are the key nitrite-oxidizing bacteria(NOB) in nitrifying wastewater treatment plants. It has been hypothesized that genus Nitrospira are K-strategists(low $K_6$ value) that can exploit low amounts of nitrite more efficiently than Nitrobacter. In contrast, Nitrobacter species are r-strategists(high $V_{max}$) that can grow faster than Nitrospira. It has also been known that the availability of organic compounds and dissolved oxygen as well as nitrite affects the distribution of NOB. In this study, we determined the distribution and competition of NOB in wastewater nitrification systems where nitrite, organic compounds, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were compositively varied. For the purpose, several compounds of the laboratory-scale nitrificaiion bioreactor and full-scale $A_2O$ wastewater treatment plant and their distribution of NOB were analyzed and compared. The analysis showed that Nitrobacter was the dominant NOB in nitrification bioreactor where average nitrite was maintained at 5 mg-N/L with very low organic concentration in aerobic condition, whereas Nitrospira was the dominant NOB in full-scale $A_2O$ plant where nitrite was maintained very low and organic compounds were maintained relatively high in alternating aerobic-anoxic condition. The result indicates that nitrite concentration is more critical factor than organics and dissolved oxygen which determines the dominant NOB in nitrification system and it is confirmed that Nitrospira and Nitrobacter showed the characteristics of r-strategist and K-strategist, respectively.

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