Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of substance abuse prevention education for middle school students in Busan. Method: The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire before education and one month later. The whole subjects were 458 students in first grade of middle school. The data were analyzed using frequencies and difference t-test after classifying the whole into potential drug abuse group and not potential group. Results: The substance abuse prevention education was ineffective in the whole group and the potential group. However, in the not potential group, the increasing rate of SPDA(Screening scale for Potential Drug-use Adolescents) score in experimental group was less than in control group. Conclusion: The substance abuse prevention education was effective for the not potential drug abuse group. On the other hand, intensive long-term drug abuse treatment program was needed for the potential group.