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Abstract

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for cardiac surgery triggers the production and release of numerous chemotactic substances and cytokines, ensuing systemic inflammatory response that leads to postoperative major organ dysfunction. Traditionally, corticosteroids (steroid) have been administered to patients undergoing cardiac surgery to ward off these detrimental physiologic alterations. However, the majority of the studies have been performed on adult patients with high-dose steroid. We carried out a randomized, prospective, double-blind study to compare the efficacy of low-dose steroid with that of high-dose steroid and to determine the adequate dose of pretreated-steroid for prophylactic effects in pediatric cardiac surgery. Thirty pediatric patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to two groups; fifteen patients received low-dose methylprednisolone (10mg/kg intravenously, n=15, low-dose group) and the others received high-dose methylprednisolone (30mg/kg intravenously, n=15, high-dose group) 1 hour prior to CPB. Arterial blood samples were taken before CPB (Pre-CPB), 10 minutes after start of CPB (CPB-10), and immediately after CPB-end (CPB-OFF) for measuring total leukocyte counts (T-WBC) and diff-counts, platelet counts, interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidant (TAO), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), troponin I (TNI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Other parameters such as volumes of urine output, pulmonary index $(PI,\;PaO_2/FiO_2)$, mechanical ventilating period, intensive care unit (ICU)-staying period, postoperative complications (fever, wound problem), postoperative 24 hrs and total volumes in blood loss, and hospitalized days were also assessed. All parameters were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in T-WBC counts, monocyte fraction, platelet counts, TA levels, NSE levels, creatinine levels, BUN levels, the volumes of total urine output, PI, the incidences of fever and wound problem, postoperative 24hrs- and total-blood loss volumes and ICU-staying period between two groups (P>0.05). At CPB-OFF, neutrophil fraction, MPO level, TNI level, and AST level were higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group (P<0.05). IL-6 level at CPB-10 was higher in the high dose-group than in the low-dose group (P<0.05). Furthermore, mechanical ventilating periods and hospitalized days of the high-dose group were significantly longer than those of low-dose group (P<0.05). The high-dose group had significantly low lymphocyte fi-action at CPB-OFF compared with the low-dose group (P<0.001). These findings suggest that pretreatment of high-dose steroid is not superior to that of low-dose steroid regrading its potential benefits in pediatric cardiac surgery. Therefore, the conventional strategy of steroid treatment, high-dose pretreatment, should be modified in the cardiac surgery with CPB. However, further studies must be performed on the larger number of patients in as much as small number of patients in this study.

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