Purpose : To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. Materials and Methods : 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Results and Conclusion : Panoramic radiography projected 10 degrees to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degrees to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medial and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough.
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