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초록

새우양식은 90년대 서해안을 중심으로 빠르게 발달하여 2001년에는 2,605ha의 면적에서 3,268톤이 생산되었으나 2004년에는 2,368톤으로 해마다 감소되고 있다. 이러한 원인 중의 하나는 흰반점바이러스(WSSV)에 의한 대량폐사에 기인하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 흰반점바이러스는 현재 세계적으로 새우양식산업에 심각한 피해를 입히는 바이러스로 우리나라에는 1993년 처음 보고된 후 해마다 새우양식장에 반복적인 대량폐사를 유발시킨다. 축제식 새우양식장의 질병 피해를 감소시키기 위한 방법의 하나로서 새우와 어류, 패류, 해조류를 함께 복합양식하는 방법이 많은 연구되어 있으며 또한 육식성 어류와의 복합양식은 질병새우를 선택적으로 포식함으로써 새우의 바이러스 발병을 지연 혹은 억제시키는 것으로 알려져 있다. 새우양식장에 육식성 어류인 황복 Takifugu obscurus을 복합적으로 사육함으로써 바이러스 억제 효과를 조사하기 위하여 수면적 $1,616{\sim}1,848\;m^2$의 4개 축제식 양식장에 각각 흰다리새우($46.9/m^2$), 흰다리새우($43.4/m^2$)+황복($0.22/m^2$), 대하($24.6/m^2$), 대하($30.3/m^2$)+황복($0.25/m^2$)의 밀도로 입식하고 95일간 사육하였다. 대하 단독구와 복합구는 각각 51일, 57일째 WSSV 발병으로 전량 폐사하였다. 흰다리새우 단독구의 생존율은 18.2%인 반면 복합구의 생존율은 32.4%이며 단위생산량은 단독구에 비해 69.2%가 높아 흰다리새우는 황복과 복합양식이 단독양식에 비해 훨씬 유리한 것으로 나타났다. 사육수의 영양염(TAN, $NO_2-N,\;NO_3-N$) 농도는 복합구가 단독구에 비해 2배 이상 높았으나 전체적으로 새우의 성장에 적정범위를 유지하였다. 대하는 흰다리새우에 비해 WSSV에 대한 감수성이 높은 것으로 나타났으며 따라서 대하와의 복합양식은 이러한 점이 충분히 고려되어야 할 것이다.

Abstract

Shrimp culture in Korea had been rapidly developed during 1990's and the production of farmed shrimp reached 3,268 mt from 2,605 ha in 2001. However the shrimp production decreased to 2,368 mt in 2004 because of the mass mortality due to outbreak of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). WSSV which is one of the most serious threats associated with cultured shrimp around the world has given the economic damages to shrimp culture industry every year since it was found from the shrimp ponds in the west coast of the South Korea in 1993. Various polyculture technologies of shrimp with shellfish, finfish or seaweeds have been implemented to reduce economic damages by mass mortalities of shrimp. Among them, the polyculture of shrimp with carnivorous fish can suppress or delay the viral outbreak of shrimp ponds because the fish may selectively eat the moribund shrimps infected by virus. To determine the selective predatory effect of river puffer Takifugu obscures on WSSV infected shrimp, postlarvae of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus chinensis. One-year old river puffers were stocked to four earthen ponds of $1,616-1,848\;m^2$ in surface area as followings: polyculture LvP, L. vannamei ($43.4/m^2$)+puffer ($0.22/m^2$); control Lv, L. vannamei ($46.9/m^2$); polyculture FcP, F. chinensis ($30.3/m^2$)+puffer ($0.25/m^2$); control Fc, F. chinensis ($24.6/m^2$). Ponds of control Fc and polyculture FcP had mass mortalities by WSSV outbreak on the $51^{st}$ and $57^{th}$ days of culture respectively. The shrimps of polyculture LvP and control Lv were harvested on the $95^{th}\;day$. Shrimp survival rates of polyculture LvP and control Lv were 32.4% and 18.2% respectively and shrimp productivity of polyculture LvP was 69.2% higher than that of control Lv. Concentration of nutrients (TAN, $NO_2-N$, $NO_3-N$) was maintained within optimal ranges for shrimp growth although that of polyculture ponds showed at least two times higher than that of control ponds. The results suggest that polyculture of L. vannamei with river puffer is higher than monoculture in survival rate and productivity. In addition, F. chinensis should be carefully cultured because this species shows much higher susceptibility to WSSV than L. vannamei.

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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (5)

  1. Jang, In-Kwon ; Kim, Jong-Sheek ; Cho, Kook-Jin ; Seo, Hyung-Chul ; Cho, Yeong-Rok ; Gopalakannan, Ayyaru ; Kim, Bong-Lae 2008. "Intensive Culture of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Limited Water Exchange I. Indoor Nursery Culture of Postlarvae" 韓國養殖學會誌 = Journal of aquaculture, 21(4): 339~345 
  2. 2008. "" Journal of fisheries science and technology, 11(4): 195~204 
  3. Jang, In-Kwon ; Kim, Jong-Sheek ; Seo, Hyung-Chul ; Cho, Kook-Jin 2009. "Intensive Culture of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, under Limited Water Exchange - II. Indoor Post-Nursery Culture of Juvenile Shrimp -" 韓國養殖學會誌 = Journal of aquaculture, 22(1): 42~50 
  4. Cho, Yeong-Rok ; Kim, Bong-Rae ; Jang, In-Kwon 2010. "Super-intensive Culture of Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), in HDPE-lined Ponds with no Water Exchange" 한국수산과학회지 = Korean journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 43(4): 331~339 
  5. Kim, Su-Mi ; Choi, Min-Ji ; Kim, Seok-Ryel ; Kang, Seo Kyeong ; Hwang, Hye Yeon ; Jang, In-Kwon ; Kim, Jin Woo ; Jee, Bo-Young ; Shin, Ki-Won ; Park, Myoung Ae 2014. "Monitoring of Legally Designated Disease in Cultured White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in Korea (2010~2013)" 韓國魚病學會誌= Journal of fish pathology, 27(2): 91~97 

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