This paper compares and analyzes mathematics teachers' understanding of students' mathematical comprehension after experiences with the Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) or the Development of Mathematical Ideas (DMI) teaching strategies. This report sheds light on current issues confronted by the educational system in the context of mathematics teaching and learning. In particular, the declining rate of mathematical literacy among adolescents is discussed. Moreover, examples of CGI and DMI teaching strategies are presented to focus on the impact of these teaching styles on student-centered instruction, teachers' belief, and students' mathematical achievement, conceptual understanding and word problem solving skills. Hence, with a gradual enhancement of reformed ways of teaching mathematics in schools and the reported increase in student achievement as a result of professional development with new teaching strategies, teacher professional development programs that emphasize teachers' understanding of students' mathematical comprehension is needed rather than the currently dominant traditional pedagogy of direct instruction with a focus on teaching problem solving strategies.
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