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This study was designed to investigate the effect of essential amino acids (EAA) and/or non-essential amino acids (NEAA) on the development of parthenogenetic and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) porcine embryos in vitro. To evaluate the timing of amino acids supplementation, activated oocytes were cultured in NCSU23-PVA with EAA, NEAA or NEAA+EAA (AAs) during specific periods as below: EAA, NEAA or AAs were supplemented during Day 0 to 6 (whole culture period: ALL), Day 2 to Day 6 (post-maternal embryonic transition period: POST-MET), Day 5 to Day 6 (post-compaction period: POST-CMP), Day 0 to Day 2 (pre-maternal embryonic transition period: PRE-MET), or Day 0 to Day 4 (post-compaction period: PRE-CMP). Supplementation of NEAA decreased cleavage rates in PRE-MET and PRE-CMP and also decreased blastocyst rates in POST-CMP. On the other hand, EAA significantly enhanced blastocyst formation rate in POST-MET and no detrimental effect on embryonic development in other groups. Interestingly, NEAA and EAA had synergistic effect when they were supplemented to the medium during whole culture period. Supplementation of AAs also enhanced SCNT porcine embryo development whereas BSA-free medium without AAs could not supported blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos. In conclusion, existence of EAA and NEAA in defined culture medium variously influences the development of parthenogenetic and SCNT porcine embryos, and their positive effect are only occurred when both EAA and NEAA are supplemented to the medium during whole culture period. Additionally, AAs supplementation enhances the blastocyst formation of SCNT porcine embryos when they are cultured in the defined condition.

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