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제1형 당뇨병 소아 환자에서 동맥경화증의 조기 평가

Early assessment of atherosclerosis in children with type 1 diabetes

Korean journal of pediatrics v.51 no.7 , 2008년, pp.747 - 753  
초록

목 적 : 제1형 당뇨병은 동맥경화증의 주요 위험인자 중의 하나로 이러한 동맥경화증의 초기 변화가 소아청소년기부터 시작된다는 것은 잘 알려진 사실이다. 성인에서는 초음파를 이용한 경동맥 내중막 두께가 동맥경화증의 독립적인 대리 표식자로 널리 이용되고 있으나, 소아청소년기에 관한 연구는 흔하지 않다. 이에 저자들은 제1형 당뇨병을 가진 소아들을 대상으로 경동맥 내막-중막 두께 및 경동맥 혈관 탄성 지수 측정을 통해 혈관의 동맥경화 상태를 조기에 평가하고, 이러한 혈관의 변화와 여러 동맥경화 위험인자들과의 관련성을 파악하여 조기 동맥경화의 선별 검사로 경동맥 내막-중막 두께의 유용성 등에 대해 알아보고자 본 연구를 시행하였다. 방 법 : 대구지역 3차 병원 소아과에서 제1형 당뇨병으로 진단받고 치료 중인 환자 23명과 동일 연령 및 성별의 건강한 소아, 청소년 19명을 대상으로 신체계측을 하고 공복상태에서 혈청콜레스테롤 및 당화혈색소를 측정하였다. 또한 고해상도 초음파를 이용하여 심장 주기에 따른 우측 경동맥의 내경 및 내중막 두께를 측정하였으며 공식에 따라 경동맥 유순도 및 신전도를 구하였다. 결 과 : 두 군 간의 성별, 연령, 혈압과 혈청콜레스테롤 등은 차이가 없었다. 경동맥 초음파 소견에서 당뇨군의 경동맥 내막-중막 두께는 의미 있게 증가되었으나 유순도와 신전도의 차이는 없었다. 당화혈색소와 고밀도혈청콜레스테롤은 다른 동맥경화의 위험인자와 독립적으로 경동맥 내막-중막 두께에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 결 론 : 제1형 소아 당뇨 환아의 경우 정상 환아에 비해 경동맥 내막-중막 두께가 의미 있게 증가되어 있고, 이것이 혈당 조절 정도나 혈청 지질치와 같은 심혈관계의 위험인자와 깊은 상관관계를 나타내는 것으로 보아 소아 당뇨 환아에서 동맥경화의 발생을 조기에 파악하는 선별 검사로서 경동맥 내막-증막 두께는 유용하다고 생각된다.

Abstract

Purpose : Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Early atherosclerotic changes in the arterial walls begin in adolescence and the risk factors are associated with its development. To assess the usefulness of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), as a marker of early atherosclerosis, we evaluated the structural and functional characteristics of the carotid artery and investigated their relationshop with the metabolic and anthropometric parameters in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods : For this study, we enrolled 23 children with type 1 diabet and 19 age and sex-equivalent healthy children as the control group. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters such as serum lipid levels, plasma glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and body mass index were measured after a 12-h fasting period. The carotid artery IMT was measured by a high-quality ultrasound system, and compliance, and distensibility were calculated by an equation. Results : There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to the sex ratio, age, blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels' however, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in the diabetic children ($8.5{\pm}1.8$ vs. $5.0{\pm}0.2$, P=0.001). Ultrasonographic findings showed that compared with the control group, the diabetic group had higher IMT ($0.45{\pm}0.06mm$ vs. $0.41{\pm}0.04mm$, P=0.04), but there were no significant differences in compliance and distensibility. The HbA1c (P=0.002) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.026) levels were independent IMT predictors in the diabetic group. Conclusion : Here, the carotid artery IMT was higher in the diabetic group, and it is correlated with atherosclerotic risk factor. Thus, carotid IMT could be evaluated as a marker of early atherosclerosis in diabetic children.

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