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Corrosion and Materials Selection for Bitumen with Heavy Naphthenic Acid in Canadian Oil Sands

Corrosion science and technology v.7 no.6 , 2008년, pp.350 - 361  

Canada's oil sands contain one of the largest reserves of oil in the world. According to recent estimates, there are nearly 180 billion barrels of oil in the Canadian oil sands trapped in a complex mixture of sand, water and clay. More than 40 companies have been currently operating or developing oil sands facilities since the first production in 1967. The process of oil sands upgrading is similar with down stream refinery, but the corrosion environment in upgrading refinery is often more severe than in the refinery because of high chlorides, mineral contents, carbonic acid, heavy viscosity and fouling, higher naphthenic acid [$NA-R(CH_{2})nCOOH$], and greater sulfur contents. Naphthenic acid corrosion (NAC) which is one of the most critical corrosion issues in up & downstream refinery plants was observed for the first time in 1920's in refinery distillation processes of Rumania, Azerbaizan (Baku), Venezuela, and California. As a first API report, the 11th annual meeting stated sources and mechanism of NAC in early 1930's. API has been developing the risk base standards, such as API RP580, 571, and Publication 581 which are based on the worst NAC damage in the world since 2000. Nevertheless not only the NAC phenomena and control in Canadian sands oil process are not much widely known but also there are still no engineering guidances for the Canadian sands oil in API standards. This paper will give NAC phenomina and materials selection guidance against NA environment in Canadian oil sands upgrading processes.

참고문헌 (19)

  1. E. Slavcheva, et al, British Corrosion Journal, 34(2) (1999) 
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  3. R. L. Piehl, 'NAC in Crude Distillation Units', Corrosion/87, Paper No. 87196 
  4. Glen Gallo, et al., 'The Effect of Mo on Stainless Steels and NAC Resistance', NACE CORROSION/08, Paper No. 08555 
  5. X.Q. Wu, et al., Corrosion Science, 46, 1013 (2004) 
  6. F. J. Vacha and A. Lemieux, 'Experiments with corrosivi y of some North Albertan In Situ Recovered Bitumenous Crudes', NACE-Canadian Region Western Conference, 1988 
  7. J. Gutzeit, 'NAC', NACE CORROSION/76, Paper No 76156 
  8. Jorge Hau, 'The Iron Power Test for NAC Studies', NACE CORROSION/99, Paper No. 99379 
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  10. API RP 571, 'Damage Mechanism Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry', December 2003 
  11. S. Tebbal, 'Critical Review of NAC', Corrosion/99, Paper No. 99380 
  12. B. Hopkinson and L. E. Penuela, 'Stainless Steels versus NAC in Petroleum Refining', Stainless Steel World 99 Conference, SSW99-005, p. 549 (1999) 
  13. H. L. Craig Jr., 'Temperature and Velocity Effect in NAC', Corrosion/96, Paper No. 96603 
  14. R. D. Kane and M. S. Cayard, 'A Comprehensive Study on NAC', Corrosion/02, Paper No. 02555 
  15. X.Q. Wu, et al., 'Erosion-Corrosion of Various Oil- Refining Materials in NA', Wear 256, p. 133 (2004) 
  16. E. Slavcheva, B. Shone, and A. Turnbull, 'Factors Controlling NAC', NACE CORROSION/98, Paper No. 98579 
  17. API Publication 581, 'RBI Base Resource Document', 2000 
  18. Hendrik J. de Bruyn, 'NAC in Synthetic Fuels Production', NACE CORROSION/98, Paper No. 98576 
  19. H. Lee Craig, Jr., 'Naphthenic Acid Corrosion in the Refinery', NACE CORROSION/95, Paper No. 95333 

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