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논 토양에서 석탄회와 석고의 혼합제를 활용한 인산유출 저감

Effects of Fly Ash and Gypsum Mixture on Reducing Phosphorus Loss from Paddy Soil

초록

농경지 인산유출 저감을 위한 석탄회-석고의 적정혼합비를 실내시험을 통해서 선발하고 이를 논토양에서 적용 가능성을 평가하였다. 석탄회-석고 혼합제 시용은 두 토양(LS, SiL)에서 토양 중 dissolved reactive P(DRP) 함량을 현저히 감소 시켰다. 그러나 석탄회-석고 혼합비 75:25, 50:50 및 25:75 처리간에 토양 중 DRP 감소 효과는 큰 차이가 없었다. 따라서 석탄회-석고 75:25 혼합제 0, 20, 40, 60 Mg $ha^{-1}$를 논 토양에 시용하여 벼 재배 기간동안 DRP 함량과 수확 후 형태별 인산 함량변화를 조사하였다. 혼합제 시용량 증가에 따라서 토양 중 DRP 함량은 감소하였으나, 수확 후 토양 중 Ca-P 함량은 혼합제 시용량 증가에 따라서 증가되었다. 그리고 혼합제 시용량 증가에 따라서 토양 중 유효인산, 유효규산 및 치환성 칼슘 함량이 현저히 증가되었다. 따라서 석탄회-석고 혼합제는 토양 중 인산의 용해도를 감소 시켜 농경지로부터 인산유출을 저감시킴과 동시에 토양 비옥도 증진에 우수한 제재로 평가되었다.

Abstract

Phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils to surface waters is an important environmental issue. Fly ash and phospho-gypsum which are industrial by-product were investigated as a means of reducing dissolved phosphorus in arable soil. To determine the optimum mixing ratio of fly ash(FA) and phospho-gypsum(PG) for reducing dissolved reactive P(DRP) in soil, various mixture ratio of FA and PG were mixed with two soil. The DRP content and pH in soils were analysed after 3 weeks incubation under flooding condition. Although DRP content in soils was significantly decreased by FA-PG mixture compared with control, there were no significant difference among the FA and PG mixture ratio of 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. The mixture of 75% FA and 25% PG was selected for field test. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the reducing DRP content in paddy soil to which 0(NPK), 20(FG 20), 40(FG 40), and 60(FG 60) Mg $ha^{-1}$ of the mixture were applied. The DRP content was reduced by 31% at the application rate of 60 Mg $ha^{-1}$. In contrast to deceasing DRP, Ca-P content increased significantly with the mixture application rate. After rice harvesting, available $SiO_2$, P, and exchangeable Ca content in soil increased significantly with application rate due to high content of Si, P, and Ca in the mixture. Mixtures of fly ash and gypsum should reduce P loss from paddy soil and increase soil fertility.

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