$\require{mediawiki-texvc}$
  • 검색어에 아래의 연산자를 사용하시면 더 정확한 검색결과를 얻을 수 있습니다.
  • 검색연산자
검색연산자 기능 검색시 예
() 우선순위가 가장 높은 연산자 예1) (나노 (기계 | machine))
공백 두 개의 검색어(식)을 모두 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (나노 기계)
예2) 나노 장영실
| 두 개의 검색어(식) 중 하나 이상 포함하고 있는 문서 검색 예1) (줄기세포 | 면역)
예2) 줄기세포 | 장영실
! NOT 이후에 있는 검색어가 포함된 문서는 제외 예1) (황금 !백금)
예2) !image
* 검색어의 *란에 0개 이상의 임의의 문자가 포함된 문서 검색 예) semi*
"" 따옴표 내의 구문과 완전히 일치하는 문서만 검색 예) "Transform and Quantization"
쳇봇 이모티콘
안녕하세요!
ScienceON 챗봇입니다.
궁금한 것은 저에게 물어봐주세요.

논문 상세정보

Abstract

This article reviews the development of flat-panel detectors for digital radiography based on amorphous materials, Important design parameters and developments are described for the two main components of flat-panel detectors: the X-ray converter and the readout pixel array. This article also introduces the advanced development concepts of new detectors. In addition, the cascaded linear systems method is reviewed because it is a very powerful tool for improving the design and assessment of X-ray imaging detector systems.

참고문헌 (167)

  1. Street, R. A., Nelson, S., Antonuk, L. and Perez-Mendez, V., 'Amorphous Silicon Sensor Arrays for Radiation Imaging,' Proc. Mater. Res. Soc., Vol. 192, pp. 441-452, 1990 
  2. Floyd, Jr., C. E., Warp, R. J., Dobbins, J. T. III, Chotas, H. G., Baydush, A. H., Vargas-Voracek, R. and Ravin, C. E., 'Imaging Characteristics of an Amorphous Silicon Flat-panel Detector for Digital Chest Radiography,' Radiology, Vol. 218, No. 3, pp. 683-688, 2001 
  3. Kotter, E. and Langer, M., 'Digital Radiography with Large-area Flat-panel Detectors,' Eur. Radiol., Vol. 12, No. 10, pp. 2562-2570, 2002 
  4. Antonuk, L. E., Boudry, J., Huang, W., McShan, D. L., Morton, E. J., Yorkston, J., Longo, M. J. and Street, R. A., 'Demonstration of Megavoltage and Diagnostic X-ray Imaging with Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Arrays,' Med. Phys., Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 1455-1466, 1992 
  5. Kasap, S. O. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Direct-conversion Flat-panel X-ray Image Detectors,' IEE Proc. -Circuits Devices Syst., Vol. 149, No. 2, pp. 85-96, 2002 
  6. Cunningham, I. A. and Shaw, R., 'Signal-to-noise Optimization of Medical Imaging Systems,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 16, No. 3, 621-632, 1999 
  7. Bates, C. W., 'Scintillation Process in Thin Films of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) due to Low Energy X-rays, Electrons and Photons,' Adv. Electronics Electron Phys., Vol. 28A, pp. 451-459, 1968 
  8. Knoll, G. F., 'Radiation Detection and Measurement,' John Wiley & Sons, p. 49, 2000 
  9. Klein, C. A., 'Bandgap Dependence and Related Features of Radiation Ionization Energies in Semiconductors,' J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 2029-2038, 1968 
  10. Zhao, W., DeCresenzo, G., Kasap, S. O. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Ghosting Caused by Bulk Charge Trapping in Direct Conversion Flat-panel Detectors Using Amorphous Selenium,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 488-500, 2005 
  11. Kim, H. K., 'Analytical Model for Incomplete Signal Generation in Semiconductor Detectors,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 88, Issue 13, pp. 132112-1-132112-3, 2006 
  12. Zhao, W., Belvis, I., Germann, S. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout of Amorphous Selenium: Construction and Evaluation of a Prototype Real-time Detector,' Med. Phys., Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 1834-1843, 1997 
  13. Pang, G., Zhao, W. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout of Amorphous Selenium: Geometrical and Effective Fill Factors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 1636-1646, 1998 
  14. Zhao, W. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Active Matrix X-ray Imaging Array,' United States Patent, No. 5,962,856, 1999 
  15. Kim, H. J., Kim, H. K., Cho, G. and Choi, J., 'Construction and Characterization of An Amorphous Silicon Flat-panel Detector Based on Ion-shower Doping Process,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 505, No. 1-2, pp. 155-158, 2003 
  16. Samei, E., Flynn, M. J., Chotas, H. G. and Dobbins, J. T., 'DQE of Direct and Indirect Digital Radiography System,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4320, pp. 189-197, 2001 
  17. Samei, E. and Flynn, M. J., 'An Experimental Comparison of Detector Performance for Direct and Indirect Digital Radiography Systems,' Med. Phys., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 608-622, 2003 
  18. Borasi, G., Samei, E., Bertolini, M., Nitrosi, A. and Tassoni, D., 'Contrast-detail Analysis of Three Flat Panel Detectors for Digital Radiography,' Med. Phys., Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 1707-1719, 2006 
  19. Ducourant, T., Couder, D., Wirth, T., Trochet, J. C., Bastiaens, R. J. M., Bruijins, T. J. C., Luijendijk, H. A., Sandkamp, B., Davies, A. G. and Didier, D., 'Image Quality of Digital Subtraction Angiography Using Flat Detector Technology,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5030, pp. 203-214, 2003 
  20. Moy, J.-P., 'Signal-to-noise Ratio and Spatial Resolution in X-ray Electronic Imagers: Is the MTF a Relevant Parameter?' Med. Phys., Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 86-93, 2000 
  21. Rocha, J. G. and Correia, J. H., 'A High-performance Scintillator-silicon-well X-ray Microdetector Based on DRIE Techniques,' Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 92, No. 1-3, pp. 203-207, 2001 
  22. Badel, X., Galeckas, A., Linnros, J., Kleimann, P., Frojdh, C. and Petersson, C. S., 'Improvement of an X-ray Imaging Detector Based on a Scintillating Guides Screen,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 487, No. 1-2, pp. 129-135, 2002 
  23. Simon, M., Engel, K. J., Menser, B., Badel, X. and Linnros, J., 'X-ray Imaging Performance of Scintillator-filled Silicon Pore Arrays,' Med. Phys., Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 968-981, 2008 
  24. Antonuk, L. E., Li, Y., Du, H., El-Mohri, Y., Zhao, Q., Yamamoto, J., Sawant, A., Wang, Y., Su, Z., Lu, J.-P., Street, R. A., Weisfield, R. and Yao, B., 'Investigation of Strategies to Achieve Optimal DQE Performance from Indirect Detection Active Matrix Flat-panel Imagers (AMFPIs) through Novel Pixel Amplification Architectures,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5745, pp. 18-31, 2005 
  25. Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y., Zhao, Q., Koniczek, M., McDonald, J., Yeakey, M., Wang, Y., Behravan, M., Street, R. A. and Lu, J.-P., 'Exploration of the Potential Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon-based Active Matrix Flat-panel Imagers Incorporating Active Pixel Sensor Architectures,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6913, pp. 69130I-1-69130I-13, 2005 
  26. Zhao, W., Hunt, D. C., Tanioka, K. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel Detectors for Medical Applications,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 549, No. 1-3, pp. 205-209, 2005 
  27. Dimitrakopoulos, C. D. and Malenfant, R. L., 'Organic Thin Film Transistors for Large Area Electronics,' Adv. Mater., Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 99-117, 2002 
  28. Wong, W. S., Ready, S., Matusiak, R., White, S. D., Lu, J.-P., Ho, J. and Street, R. A., 'Amorphous Silicon Thin-film Transistors and Arrays Fabricated by Jet Printing,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 610-612, 2002 
  29. Arias, A. C., Ready, S. E., Lujan, R., Wong, W. S., Paul, K. E., Salleo, A., Chabinyc, M. L., Apte, R., Street, R. A., Wu, Y., Liu, P. and Ong, B., 'All Jet-Printed Polymer Thin-film Transistor Active-matrix Backplanes,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 85, No. 15, pp. 3304-3306, 2004 
  30. Street, R. A., Wong, W. S., Ready, S., Lujan, R., Arias, A. C., Chabinyc, M. L., Salleo, A., Apte, R. and Antonuk, L. E., 'Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-ray Imaging,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5745, pp. 7-17, 2005 
  31. Mettivier, G., Montesi, M. C. and Russo, P., 'First Images of a Digital Autoradiography System Based on a Medipix2 Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. N173-N181, 2003 
  32. Davidson, D. W., Watt, J., Tlustos, L., Mikulec, B., Campbell, M., Mathieson, K., O'Shea, V., Smith, K. M. and Rahman, M., 'Detective Quantum Efficiency of the Medipix Pixel Detector,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 1659-1663, 2003 
  33. Annovazzi, A., Amendolia, S. R., Bigongiari, A., Bisogni, M. G., Catarsi, F., Cesqui, F., Cetronio, A., Colombo, F., Delogu, P., Fantacci, M. E., Gilberti, A., Lanzieri, C., Lavagna, S., Novelli, M., Passuello, G., Paternoster, G., Pieracci, M., Poletti, M., Quattrocchi, M., Rosso, V., Stefanini, A., Testa, A. and Venturelli, L., 'A GaAs Pixel Detectors-based Digital Mammographic System: Performances and Imaging Tests Results,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 576, No. 1, pp. 154-159, 2007 
  34. Thunberg, S., Francke, T., Egerstrom, J., Eklund, M., Ericsson, L., Kristoffersson, T., Peskov, V., Rantanen, J., Sokolov, S., Svedenhag, P., Ullberg, C. K. and Weber, N., 'Evaluation of a Photon Counting Mammography System,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 202-208, 2002 
  35. Thunberg, S., Adelow, L., Blom, O., Coster, A., Egerstrom, J., Eklund, M., Egnell, P., Francke, T., Jordung, U., Kristoffersson, T., Lindman, K., Lindqvist, L., Marchal, D., Olla, H., Penton, E., Peskov, V., Rantanen, J., Sokolov, S., Svedenhag, P., Ullberg, C. and Weber, N., 'Dose Reduction in Mammography with Photon Counting Imaging,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5368, pp. 457-465, 2004 
  36. Maidment, A., Albert, M., Thunberg, S., Adelow, L, Blom, O., Egerstrom, J., Eklund, M., Francke, T., Jordung, U., Kristoffersson, T., Lindman, K., Lindqvist, L, Marchal, D., Olla, H., Penton, E., Rantanen, J., Solokov, S., Ullberg, C. and Weber, N., 'Evaluation of a Photon-counting Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5745, pp. 572-582, 2005 
  37. Jenkins, G. M. and Watts, D. G., 'Spectral Analysis and Its Application,' Holden-Day Series in Time Series Analysis, Holden-Day, 1968 
  38. Giger, M. L., Doi, K. and Metz, C. E., 'Investigation of Basic Imaging Properties in Digital Radiography. 2. Noise Wiener Spectrum,' Med. Phys., Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 797-805, 1984 
  39. Dainty, J. C. and Shaw, R., 'Image Science,' Academic Press, 1974 
  40. Doi, K., 'Field Characteristics of Geometric Unsharpness Due to the X-ray Tube Focal Spot,' Med. Phys., Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 15-20, 1977 
  41. Rabbani, M. and van Metter, R. L., 'Analysis of Signal and Noise Propagation for Several Imaging Mechanisms,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 1156-1164, 1989 
  42. Sattarivand, M. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Computational Engine for Development of Complex Cascaded Models of Signal and Noise in X-ray Imaging Systems,' IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 211-222, 2005 
  43. Zhao, W. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout of Amorphous Selenium: Theoretical Analysis of Detective Quantum Efficiency,' Med. Phys., Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 1819-1833, 1997 
  44. Zhao, W., Ji, W. G. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Effects of Characteristic X rays on the Noise Power Spectra and Detective Quantum Efficiency of Photoconductive X-ray Detectors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 2039-2049, 2001 
  45. Cunningham, I. A. and Yao, J., 'Cascaded Models and the DQE of Flat-panel Imagers: Noise Aliasing, Secondary Quantum Noise and Reabsorption,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 61-72, 2002 
  46. Graeve, T., Huang, W., Alexander, S. M. and Li, Y., 'Amorphous Silicon Image Sensor for X-ray Applications,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 2415, pp. 177-181, 1995 
  47. Maolinbay, M., Zimmerman, T., Yarema, R. J., Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y. and Yeakey, M., 'Design and Performance of a Low Noise, 128-channel ASIC Preamplifier for Readout of Active Matrix Flat-panel Imaging Arrays,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 485, No. 1, pp. 661-675, 2002 
  48. Borasi, G., Nitrosi, A., Ferrari, P. and Tassoni, D., 'On Site Evaluation of Three Flat Panel Detectors for Digital Radiography,' Med. Phys., Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 1719-1731, 2003 
  49. Kim, H. K., Yun, S. M., Ko, J. S., Cho, G. and Graeve, T., 'Cascade Modeling of Pixelated Scintillator Detectors for X-ray Imaging,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 1357-1366, 2008 
  50. Richard, S. and Siewerdsen, J. H., 'Optimization of Dual-energy Imaging Systems Using Generalized NEQ and Imaging Task,' Med. Phys., Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 127-139, 2007 
  51. Sonoda, M., Takano, M., Miyahara, J. and Kato, H., 'Computed Radiography Utilizing Scanning laser Stimulated Luminescence,' Radiology, Vol. 148, No. 3, pp. 833-838, 1983 
  52. Gagne, R. M., Quinn, P. W., Chen, L., Myers, K. J. and Doyle, R. J., 'Optically Coupled Digital Radiography: Sources of Inefficiency,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4320, pp. 156-162, 2001 
  53. Granfors, P. R., Albagli, D. Tkaczyk, J. E., Aufrichtig, R., Netel, H., Brunst, G., Boudry, J. and Luo, D., 'Performance of a Flat Panel Cardiac Detector,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4320, pp. 77-84, 2001 
  54. Yorker, J. G., Jeromin, L. S., Lee, D. L., Palecki, E. F., Golden, K. P. and Zhenxue, J., 'Characterization of a Full-field Digital Mammography Detector Based on Direct X-ray Conversion in Selenium,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 21-29, 2002 
  55. Rivetti, S., Lanconelli, N., Campanini, R., Bertolini, M., Borasi, G., Nitrosi, A., Danielli, C., Angelini, L. and Maggi, S., 'Comparison of Different Commercial FFDM Units by Means of Physical Characterization and Contrast-detail Analysis,' Med. Phys., Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 4198-4209, 2006 
  56. Karim, K. S., Nathan, A. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Alternative Pixel Architectures for Large Area Medical Imaging,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4320, pp. 35-46, 2001 
  57. Rowlands, J. A. and Yorkston, J., 'Flat Panel Detectors for Digital Radiography,' Chapter 4, Handbook of Medical Imaging: Vol. 1. Physics and Psychophysics (Eds. Beutel, J., Kundel, H. L. and Van Metter, R.), SPIE, pp. 223-328, 2000 
  58. Hack, M., Guha, S. and Shur, M., 'Photoconductivity and Recombination in Amorphous Silicon Alloys,' Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 6991-6999, 1984 
  59. Yarema, R. J., Zimmerman, T., Srage, J., Antonuk, L. E., Berry, J., Huang, W. and Maolinbay, M., 'A Programmable, Low Noise, Multichannel ASIC for Readout of Pixelated Amorphous Silicon Arrays,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 439, No. 2-3, pp. 413-417, 2000 
  60. Lazzari, B., Belli, G., Gori, G. and Rosselli Del Turco, M., 'Physical Characteristics of Five Clinical Systems for Digital Mammography,' Med. Phys., Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 2730-2743 2007 
  61. Rowlands, J. A., 'The Physics of Computed Radiography,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 47, No. 23, pp. R123-R166, 2002 
  62. Zhao, B. and Zhao, W., 'Temporal Performance of Amorphous Selenium Mammography Detectors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 128-136, 2005 
  63. Weisfield, R. L., Hartney, M., Schneider, R., Aflatooni, K. and Lujan, R., 'High Performance Amorphous Silicon Image Sensor for X-ray Diagnostic Medical Imaging Application,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3659, pp. 307-317, 1999 
  64. Weisfield, R. L., Yao, W., Speaker, T., Zhou, K., Colbeth, R. and Proano, C., 'Performance Analysis of a 127-micron Pixel Large-area TFT/Photodiode Array with Boosted Fill Factor,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5368, pp. 338-348, 2004 
  65. Zhao, W., Hunt, D. C., Tanioka, K. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Indirect Flat-panel Detector with Avalanche Gain,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5368, pp. 150-161, 2004 
  66. Wagner, R. F. and Brown, D. G., 'Unified SNR Analysis of Medical Imaging Systems,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 489-518, 1985 
  67. ICRU 54, 'Medical Imaging - the Assessment of Image Quality,' International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements, 1995 
  68. Holl, I., Lorenz, E. and Mageras, G., 'A Measurement of Light Yield of Some Common Inorganic Scintillators,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 105-109, 1988 
  69. Street, R. A., Ready, S. E., Van Schuylenbergh, K., Ho, J., Boyce, J. B. and Nylen, P., 'Comparison of $PbI_2$ and $HgI_2$ for Direct Detection Active Matrix X-ray Image Sensors,' J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, No. 5., pp. 3345-3355, 2002 
  70. El-Mohri, Y., Antonuk, L. E., Zhao, Q., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Du, H. and Sawant, A., 'Performance of a High Fill Factor, Indirect Detection Prototype Flat-panel Imager for Mammography,' Med. Phys., Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 315-327, 2007 
  71. De Geronimo, G., O'Connor, P., Radeka, V. and Yu, B., 'Front-end Electronics for Imaging Detectors,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 471, No. 1-2, pp. 192-199, 2001 
  72. Francke, T., Eklund, M., Ericsson, L, Kristoffersson, T., Peskov, V. N., Rantanen, J., Sokolov, S., Soderman, J. E., Ullberg, C. K. and Weber, N., 'Dose Reduction Using Photon Counting X-ray Imaging,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4320, pp. 127-132, 2001 
  73. Frojdh, C., Graafsma, H., Nilsson, H. E. and Ponchut, C., 'Characterization of a Pixellated CdTe Detector with Single-photon Processing Readout,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 563, No. 1, pp. 128-132, 2006 
  74. Cho, M. K., Kim, H. K. Graeve, T., Yun, S. M., Lim, C. H., Cho, H. and Kim, J.-M., 'Measurements of X-ray Imaging Performance of Granular Phosphors with Direct-coupled CMOS Sensors,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 1338-1343, 2008 
  75. Spear W. E. and LeComber P. G., 'Substitutional Doping of Amorphous Silicon,' Solid State Comm., Vol. 17, No. 9, pp. 1193-1196, 1975 
  76. Weckler, G., 'Operation of p-n Junction Photodetectors in a Photon Flux Integrating Mode,' IEEE J. Solid-Sate Circuit, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 65-73, 1967 
  77. Huang, W., Antonuk, L. E., Berry, J., Maolinbay, M., Martelli, C., Mody, P., Nassif, S. and Yeakey, M., 'An Asynchronous, Pipelined, Electronic Acquisition System for Active Matrix Flat-panel Imagers (AMFPIs),' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 431, No. 1-2, pp. 273-284, 1999 
  78. Papoulis, A., 'Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes,' McGraw-Hill, 1991 
  79. Schieber, M., Zuch, A., Gilboa, H. and Zentai, G., 'Reviewing Polycrystalline Mercuric Iodide X-ray Detectors,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 2385-2391, 2006 
  80. Rabbani, M. Shaw, R. and van Metter, R. L., 'Detective Quantum Efficiency of Imaging Systems with Amplifying and Scattering Mechanisms,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 895-901, 1987 
  81. Siewerdsen, J. H., Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y., Yorkston, J., Huang, W. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Signal, Noise Power Spectrum and Detective Quantum Efficiency of Indirect-detection Flat-panel Imagers for Diagnostic Radiology,' Med. Phys., Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 614-628, 1998 
  82. Hunt, D. C., Tanioka, K. and Rowlands, J. A., 'X-ray Imaging Using Avalanche Multiplication in Amorphous Selenium: Investigation of Depth Dependent Avalanche Noise,' Med. Phys., Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 976-986, 2007 
  83. Zhao, W., Li, D., Reznik, A., Lui, B., Hunt, D. C., Tanioka, K. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Indirect Flat-panel Detector with Avalanche Gain: Fundamental Feasibility Investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (Scintillator HARP Active Matrix Flat Panel Imager),' Med. Phys. Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 2954-2966, 2005 
  84. Swank, R. K., 'Absorption and Noise in X-ray Phosphors,' J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 4199-4203, 1973 
  85. Mikulec, B., 'Development of Segmented Semiconductor Arrays for Quantum Imaging,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 510, No. 1-2, pp. 1-23, 2003 
  86. Akbarpour, R., Friedman, S. N., Siewerdsen, J. H., Neary, J. D. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Signal and Noise Transfer in Spatiotemporal Quantum-based Imaging Systems,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. B151-B164, 2007 
  87. Zhao, W., Waechter, D. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout of Amorphous Selenium: Radiation Hardness of Cadmium Selenide Thin Film Transistors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 527-538, 1998 
  88. Kameshima, T., Kaifu, N., Takami, E., Morishita, M. and Yamazaki, T., 'Novel Large Area MIS-type X-ray Image Sensor for Digital Radiography,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3336, pp. 453-462, 1998 
  89. Richard, S., Siewerdsen, J. H., Jaffray, D. A., Moseley, D. J. and Bakhtiar, B., 'Generalized DQE Analysis of Radiographic and Dual-energy Imaging Using Flat-panel Detectors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 1397-1413, 2005 
  90. Kim, H. K., Cho, G., Lee, S. W., Shin, Y. H. and Cho, H. S., 'Development and Evaluation of a Digital Radiographic System Based on CMOS Image Sensor,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 662-666, 2001 
  91. Zhao, W., DeCrescenzo, G. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Investigation of Lag and Ghosting in Amorphous Selenium Flat-Panel X-ray Detectors,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 9-20, 2002 
  92. Chotas, H. G., Dobbins, J. T. III and Ravin, C. E., 'Principles of Digital Radiography with Large-Area, Electronically Readable Detectors: a Review of the Basics,' Radiology, Vol. 210, No. 3, pp. 595-599, 1999 
  93. Kasap, S. O., Zahangir Kabir, M. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Recent Advances in X-ray Photoconductors for Direct Conversion X-ray Image Detectors,' Cur. Appl. Phys., Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 288-292, 2006 
  94. Zhao, W., Li, D., Rowlands, J. A., Egami, N., Takiguchi, Y., Nanba, M., Honda, Y., Ohkawa, Y., Kubota, M., Tanioka, K., Suzuki, K. and Kawai, T., 'An Indirect Flat-panel Detector with Avalanche Gain for Low Dose X-ray Imaging: SAPHIRE (Scintillator Avalanche Photoconductor with High Resolution Emitter Readout),' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6913, pp. 69130M-1-69130M-11, 2008 
  95. Sauli, F., 'GEM: a New Concept for Electron Amplification in Gas Detectors,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 386, No. 2-3, pp. 531-534, 1997 
  96. Rossmann, K., 'The Spatial Frequency Spectrum: a Means for Studying the Quality of Radiographic Imaging Systems,' Radiology, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 1-13, 1968 
  97. Munro, P. and Bouius, D. C., 'X-ray Quantum Limited Portal Imaging Using Amorphous Silicon Flat-panel Arrays,' Med. Phys., Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 689-702, 1998 
  98. Tao, S., Gu, Z. H. and Nathan, A., 'Fabrication of Gd2O2S:Tb Based Phosphor Films Coupled with Photodetectors for X-ray Imaging Applications,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 1091-1094, 2002 
  99. Rocha, J. G., Ramos, N. F., Lanceros-Mendez, S., Wolffenbuttel, R.. F. and Correia, J. H., 'CMOS X-rays Detector Array Based on Scintillating Light Guides,' Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 110, No. 1-3, pp. 119-123, 2004 
  100. Cha, B. K., Bae, J. H., Kim, B.-J., Jeon, H. and Cho, G., 'Performance Studies of a Monolithic Scintillator-CMOS Image Sensor for X-ray Application,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 591, No. 1, pp. 113-116, 2008 
  101. Hajdok, G., Yao, J., Battista, J. J. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Signal and Noise Transfer Properties of Photoelectric Interactions in Diagnostic X-ray Imaging Detectors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 3601-3620, 2006 
  102. Kim, H. K., 'Generalized Cascaded Model to Assess Noise Transfer in Scintillator-based X-ray Imaging Detectors,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 89, Issue 23, pp. 233504-1-233504-3, 2006 
  103. Zhao, W. and Rowlands, J. A., 'X-ray Imaging Using Amorphous Selenium: Feasibility of a Flat Panel Self-scanned Detector for Digital Radiology,' Med. Phys., Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1595-1604, 1995 
  104. Rau, A. W., Bakueva, L. and Rowlands, J. A., 'The X-ray Time of Flight Method for Investigation of Ghosting in Amorphous Selenium-based Flat Panel Medical X-ray Imagers,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 3160-3177, 2005 
  105. Bloomquist, A. K., Yaffe, M. J., Mawdsley, G. E., Hunter, D. M. and Beideck, D. J., 'Lag and Ghosting in a Clinical Flat-panel Selenium Digital Mammography System,' Med. Phys., Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 2998-3005, 2006 
  106. Granfors, P. R. and Aufrichtig, R., 'Performance of a $41{\times}41-cm^2$ Amorphous Silicon Flat Panel X-ray Detector for Radiographic Imaging Applications,' Med. Phys., Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 1324-1331, 2000 
  107. Shaw, J., Albagli, D., Wei, C. Y. and Granfors, P. R., 'Enhanced a-Si/CsI-based Flat panel X-ray Detector for Mammography,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5368, pp. 370-378, 2004 
  108. Llopart, X., Campbell, M., Dinapoli, R., San Segundo, D. and Pernigotti, E., 'Medipix2: a 64-k Pixel Readout Chip with $55 {\mu}m$ Square Elements Working in Single Photon Counting Mode,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 2279-2283, 2002 
  109. Avila, C., Lopez, J., Sanabria, J. C., Baldazzi, G., Bollini, D., Gombia, M., Cabal, A. E., Ceballos, C., Diz Garcia, A., Gambaccini, M., Taibi, A., Sarnelli, A., Tuffanelli, A., Giubellino, P., Marzari-Chiesa, A., Prino, F., Tomassi, E., Grybos, P., Idzik, M., Swientek, K., Wiacek, P., Montano, L. M., Ramello, L. and Sitta, M., 'Contrast Cancellation Technique Applied to Digital X-ray Imaging Using Silicon Strip Detectors,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 3755-3766, 2005 
  110. Metz, C. E. and Doi, K., 'Transfer Function Analysis of Radiographic Imaging Systems,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 1079-1106, 1979 
  111. Ito, H., Matsubara, S., Takahashi, T., Shimada, T. and Takeuchi, H., 'Integrated Radiation Detectors with a-Si Photodiodes on Ceramic Scintillators,' Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. L1476-L1479, 1989 
  112. Nikl, M., 'Scintillation Detectors for X-rays,' Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. R37-R54, 2006 
  113. Kasap, S. O. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Photoconductor Selection for Digital Flat Panel X-ray Image Detectors Based on the Dark Current,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 615-620, 2000 
  114. Haugen, C., Kasap, S. O. and Rowlands, J. A., 'X-ray Irradiation Induced Bulk Space Charge in Stabilized a-Se X-ray Photoconductors,' J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 5495-5501, 1998 
  115. Monnin, P., Gutierrez, D., Bulling, S., Guntern, D. and Verdun, F. R., 'A Comparison of the Performance of Digital Mammography Systems,' Med. Phys., Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 906-914, 2007 
  116. El-Mohri, Y., Antonuk, L. E., Zhao, Q., Maolinbay, M., Rong, X., Jee, K.-W., Nassif, S. and Cionca, C., 'A Quantitative Investigation of Additive Noise Reduction for Active Matrix Flat-panel Imagers Using Compensation Lines,' Med. Phys., Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 1855-1864, 2000 
  117. Beuville, E., Belding, M., Costello, A., Hansen, R. and Petronio, S., 'High Performance, Low-noise, 128-channel Readout Integrated Circuit for Flat Panel X-ray Detector Systems,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5368, pp. 714-725, 2004 
  118. Gobbi, D. G., Dixit, M. S., Dubeau, J. and Johns, P. C., 'Photon-counting Radiography with the Gas Microstrip Detector,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol., 44, No. 5, pp. 1317-1335, 1999 
  119. Bertolucci, E., Maiorino, M., Mettivier, G., Montesi, M. C. and Russo, P., 'Preliminary Test of an Imaging Probe for Nuclear Medicine Using Hybrid Pixel Detectors,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 487, No. 1-2, pp. 193-201, 2002 
  120. Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y., Jee, K.-W., Zhao, Q., Sawant, A., Su, Z. and Street, R. A., 'Technological Pathways for 21st Century Active Matrix X-ray Imager Development,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 1-8, 2002 
  121. Siewerdsen, J. H. and Jaffray, D. A., 'A Ghost Story: Spatio-temporal Response Characteristics of an Indirect-detection Flat-panel Imager,' Med. Phys., Vol. 26, No. 8, pp. 1624-1641, 1999 
  122. Street, R. A., 'Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,' Cambridge University Press, 1991 
  123. Vedantham, S., Karellas, A., Suryanarayanan, S., Albagli, D., Han, S., Tkaczyk, E. J., Landberg, C. E., Opsahl-Ong, B., Granfors, P. R., Levis, I., D'Orsi, C. J. and Hendrick, R. E., 'Full Breast Digital Mammography with an Amorphous Silicon-based Flat Panel Detector: Physical Characteristics of a Clinical Prototype,' Med. Phys., Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 558-567, 2000 
  124. Cheung, L. K., Jing, Z., Bogdanovich, S., Golden, K., Robinson, S., Beliaevskaia, E. and Parikh, S., 'Image Performance of a New Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel X-ray Detector Designed for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5745, pp. 1282-1290, 2005 
  125. Shikhaliev, P. M., Xu, T. and Molloi, S., 'Photon Counting Computed Tomography: Concept and Initial Results,' Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 427-436, 2005 
  126. Rossmann, K., 'Measurement of the Modulation Transfer Function of Radiographic Systems Containing Fluorescent Screens,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 551-557, 1964 
  127. Barrett, H. H. and Swindell, W., 'Radiological Imaging - the Theory of Image Foundation, Detection, and Processing,' Academic Press, 1981 
  128. Kim, H. K., Ahn, J. K. and Cho, G., 'Development of a Lens-coupled CMOS Detector for X-ray Inspection System,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 545, No. 1-2, pp. 210-216, 2005 
  129. Que, W. and Rowlands, J. A., 'X-ray Photogeneration in Amorphous Selenium: Geminate versus Columnar Recombination,' Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 51, No. 16, pp. 10500-10507, 1995 
  130. Giomataris, Y., Rebourgeard, Ph., Robert, J. P. and Charpak, G., 'MICROMEGAS: a High-granularity Position-sensitive Gaseous Detectors for High Particle-flux Environments,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 376, No. 1, pp. 29-35, 1996 
  131. Cunningham, I. A., 'Applied Linear-systems Theory,' Chapter 2, Handbook of Medical Imaging: Vol. 1. Physics and Psychophysics (Eds. Beutel, J., Kundel, H. L. and Van Metter, R.), SPIE, pp. 79-159, 2000 
  132. Gaskill, J. D., 'Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics,' John Wiley & Sons, 1978 
  133. Daniel, J. H., Krusor, B., Apte, R. B., Mulato, M., Van Schuylenbergh, K., Lau, R., Do, T., Street, R. A., Goredema, A. and Boils-Boissier, D. C., 'Micro-electro-mechanical System Fabrication Technology Applied to Large Area X-ray Image Sensor Arrays,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 1219-1223, 2001 
  134. Du, H., Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y., Zhao, Q., Su, Z., Yamamoto, J. and Wang, Y., 'Investigation of the Signal Behavior at Diagnostic Energies of Prototype, Direct Detection, Active Matrix, Flat-panel Imagers Incorporating Polycrystalline $HgI_2$,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 1325-1351, 2008 
  135. Papoulis, A., 'Systems and Transforms with Applications in Optics,' McGraw-Hill, 1968 
  136. Yaffe, M. J. and Rowlands, J. A., 'X-ray Detectors for Digital Radiography,' Phys. Med. Biol. Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 1-39, 1997 
  137. Rowlands, J. and Kasap, S., 'Amorphous Semiconductors Usher in Digital X-ray Imaging,' Phys. Today, Vol. 50, No. 11, pp. 24-30, 1997 
  138. Ducourant, T., Michel, M. Vieux, G., Peppler, T., Trochet, J. C., Schulz, R. F., Bastiaens, R. J. M. and Busse, F., 'Optimization of Key Building Blocks for a Large-area Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Dynamic Digital X-ray Detector Based on a-Si:H/CsI:Tl Flat Panel Technology,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3977, pp. 14-25, 2000 
  139. Matsuura, N., Zhao, W., Huang, Z. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout: Amplified Pixel Detector Array for Fluoroscopy,' Med. Phys., Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 672-681, 1999 
  140. Street, R. A., 'Large Area Image Sensor Arrays,' Chapter 4, Technology and Applications of Amorphous Silicon (Ed. R. A. Street), Springer-Verlag, pp. 147-221, 2000 
  141. Yorkston, J., 'Recent Developments in Digital Radiography Detectors,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 580, No. 2, pp. 974-985, 2007 
  142. Ng, T. N., Lujan, R. A., Sambandan, S., Street, R. A., Limb, S. and Wong, W. S., 'Low Temperature a-Si:H Photodiodes and Flexible Image Sensor Arrays Patterned by Digital Lithography,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 91, No. 6, pp. 063505-1-063505-3, 2007 
  143. Rossmann, K., 'Point Spread-function, Line Spread-function, and Modulation Transfer Function. Tools for the Study of Imaging Systems,' Radiology, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 257-272, 1969 
  144. Shaw, R., 'The Equivalent Quantum Efficiency of the Photographic Process,' J. Photogr. Sc., Vol. 11, pp. 199-204, 1963 
  145. Siewerdsen, J. H., Antonuk, L. E., El-Mohri, Y., Yorkston, J., Huang, W., Boudry, J. M. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Empirical and Theoretical Investigation of the Noise Performance of Indirect Detection, Active Matrix Flat-panel Imagers (AMFPIs) for Diagnostic Radiology,' Med. Phys., Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 71-89, 1997 
  146. Lee, D. L., Cheung, L. K. and Jeromin, L. S., 'A New Digital Detector for Projection Radiography,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 2432, pp. 237-249, 1995 
  147. van Eijk, C. W. E., 'Inorganic Scintillators in Medical Imaging,' Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 47, No. 8, pp. R85-R106, 2002 
  148. Abkowitz, M., 'Density of States in a-Se from Combined Analysis of Xerographic Potentials and Transient Transport Data,' Phil. Mag. Lett., Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 53-57, 1988 
  149. Zhao, W., Law, J., Waechter, D., Huang, Z. and Rowlands, J. A., 'Digital Radiology Using Active Matrix Readout of Amorphous Selenium: Detectors with High Voltage Protection,' Med. Phys., Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 539-549, 1998 
  150. Kleimann, P., Linnros, J., Frojdh, C. and Petersson, C. S., 'An X-ray Imaging Pixel Detector Based on Scintillator Filled Pores in a Silicon Matrix,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 460, No. 1, pp. 15-19, 2001 
  151. Yao, J. and Cunningham, I. A., 'Parallel Cascades: New Ways to Describe Noise Transfer in Medical Imaging Systems,' Med. Phys., Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 2020-2038, 2001 
  152. James, J. J., Davies, A. G., Cowen, A. R. and O'Connor, P. J., 'Developments in Digital Radiography: An Equipment Update,' Eur. Radiol., Vol. 11, No. 12, pp. 2616-2626, 2001 
  153. Spahn, M., 'Flat Detectors and Their Clinical Applications,' Eur. Radiol., Vol. 15, No. 9, pp. 1934-1947, 2005 
  154. Cunningham, I. A., Westmore, M. S. and Fenster, A., 'A Spatial-frequency Dependent Quantum Accounting Diagram and Detective Quantum Efficiency Model of Signal and Noise Propagation in Cascaded Imaging Systems,' Med. Phys., Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 417-427, 1994 
  155. Guha, S. and Hack, M., 'Dominant Recombination Process in Amorphous Silicon Alloys,' J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 1683-1685, 1985 
  156. Lu, J. P., Van Schuylenbergh, K., Ho, J., Wang, Y., Boyce, J. B. and Street, R. A., 'Flat Panel Imagers with Pixel Level Amplifiers Based on Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-film Transistor Technology,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 80, No. 24, pp. 4656-4658, 2002 
  157. Li, D. and Zhao, W., 'SAPHIRE (Scintillator Avalanche Photoconductor with High Resolution Emitter Readout) for Low Dose X-ray Imaging: Spatial Resolution,' Med. Phys. Vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 3151-3161, 2008 
  158. Barrett, H. H. and Meyers, K. J., 'Foundations of Image Science,' Wiley, 2004 
  159. Weil, E., 'Some Bibliographical Notes on the First Publication on the Roentgen Rays,' Isis, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 362-365, 1938 
  160. Moy, J.-P., 'Recent Developments in X-ray Imaging Detectors,' Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, Vol. 442, No. 1-3, pp. 26-37, 2000 
  161. Stevels, A. L. N. and Schrama de Pauw, A. D. M., 'Vapor-deposited CsI:Na Layers, I. Morphologic and Crystallographic Properties, II. Screen for Application in X-ray Imaging Devices,' Philips Res. Rept., Vol. 29, pp. 340-362, 1974 
  162. Street, R. A., Ready, S. E, Melekhov, L., Ho, J., Zuck, A. and Breen, B., 'Approaching the Theoretical X-ray Sensitivity with HgI2 Direct Detection Image Sensors,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4682, pp. 414-422, 2002 
  163. Metz, C. E., Wagner, R. F., Doi, K., Brown, D. G., Nishikawa, R. M. and Myers, K. J., 'Toward Consensus on Quantitative Assessment of Medical Imaging Systems,' Med. Phys., Vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 1057-1061, 1995 
  164. Antonuk, L. E., Jee, K.-W., El-Mohri, Y., Maolinbay, M., Nassif, S., Rong, X., Zhao, Q., Siewerdsen, J. H., Street, R. A. and Shah, K. S., 'Strategies to Improve the Signal and Noise Performance of Active Matrix, Flat-panel Imagers for Diagnostic X-ray Applications,' Med. Phys., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 289-306, 2000 
  165. Rahn, J. T., Lemmi, F., Weisfield, R. L., Lujan, R., Mei, P. Lu, J.-P., Ho, J., Ready, S. E., Apte, R. B., Nylen, P., Boyce, J. B. and Street, R. A., 'High Resolution, High Fill Factor a-Si:H Sensor Arrays for Medical Imaging,' Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3659, pp. 510-517, 1999 
  166. Paul, K. E., Wong, W. S., Ready, S. E. and Street, R. A., 'Additive Jet Printing of Polymer Thin-film Transistors,' Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 83, No. 10, pp. 2070-2072, 2003 
  167. Mettivier, G., Montesi, M. C. and Russo, P., 'Digital Autoradiography with a Medipix2 Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector,' IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 46-50, 2005 

이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (0)

  1. 이 논문을 인용한 문헌 없음

원문보기

원문 PDF 다운로드

  • ScienceON :

원문 URL 링크

원문 PDF 파일 및 링크정보가 존재하지 않을 경우 KISTI DDS 시스템에서 제공하는 원문복사서비스를 사용할 수 있습니다. (원문복사서비스 안내 바로 가기)

상세조회 0건 원문조회 0건

DOI 인용 스타일