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Abstract

Although prion diseases, a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases of human and animals, are presumed to be caused by several mechanisms including abnormal change of prion protein, oxidative stress is still believed to play a central role in development of the diseases. Cigarette smoking has a few beneficial effects on neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease despite of many detrimental effects. In this study, we investigated how chronic cigarette smoking could exert such beneficial effect against oxidative damage. For this study, homogenates of 87V scrapie-infected brain was inoculated on intracerebral system of IM mice through stereotaxic microinjection and biochemical properties concerning with oxidative stress were examined. The scrapie infection decreased the activity of mitochondrial Mn-containing superoxide dismutase by 50% of the control, meanwhile the effects on other antioxidant enzymes including Cu or Zn-containing superoxide dismutase were not significant. Additionally, the infection elevated superoxide level as well as monoamine oxide-B (MAO-B) in the infected brain. Interestingly, many of the detrimental effects were improved in partial or significantly by long-term cigarette smoke exposure (CSE). CSE not only completely prevented the generation of mitochondrial superoxide but also significantly (p<0.05) decreased the elevated mitochondrial MAO-B activity in the infected brain. Concomitantly, CSE prevented subsequent protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation caused by scrapie infection; however, it did not affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that chronic exposure of cigarette smoke contribute to in part preventing the progress of neurodegeneration caused by scrapie infection.

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