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The effects of oxygenation in cultures of Bacillus circulans BL32 on transglutaminase (TGase) production and cell sporulation were studied by varying the agitation speed and the volume of aeration. Kinetics of cultivations has been studied in batch systems using a 2 L bioreactor, and the efficiency of agitation and aeration was evaluated through the oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient ($k_La$). It was adopted a two-stage aeration rate control strategy: first stage to induce biomass formation, followed by a second stage, in which cell sporulation was stimulated. A correlation of TGase production, spores formation, and oxygen concentration was established. Under the best conditions (500 rpm; 2 vvm air flow, followed by no air supply during stationary phase; $k_La$ of 33.7 $h^{-1}$), TGase production reached a volumetric production of 589 U/L after 50 h of cultivation and the enzyme yield was 906 U/g cells. These values are 61% higher than that obtained in shaker cultures and TGase productivity increased 82%, when $k_La$ varied from 4.4 to 33.7 $h^{-1}$. The maximal cell concentration increased four times in relation to shaker cultures and the cultivation time for the highest TGase activity was reduced from 192 h to just 50 h. These results show the importance of bioprocess design for the production of microbial TGase, especially concerning the oxygen supply of cultures and the induction of cell sporulation.

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