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양송이버섯 재배 후 폐상퇴비의 효과 분석 및 분리 미생물의 특성

Characteristic of Microorganism and Effect Analysis of Spent Mushroom Compost after Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

초록

양송이버섯 재배 후 폐상퇴비의 효율적인 재활용과 친환경 자재로서의 이용가능성을 검토하기 위해 작물과 식물병원균에 미치는 영향을 미생물학적인 관점에서 조사하였다. 폐상시기별로 폐상퇴비내 미생물상은 농가마다 차이는 있었지만 형광성 Pseudomonas속, 내열성 세균, 방선균 등 다양한 미생물이 분포하였고, 특히 버섯에는 병원균으로 작용하지만 식물병원균에는 길항균으로 사용되고 있는 Trichoderma 속이 많이 분포하고 있었다. 폐상퇴비에서 분리한 미생물의 여러가지 채소병원균에 대한 항균력을 조사한 결과 식물병원균에 대하여 광범위한 항균 스펙트럼을 나타내었다. 농가마다 채취한 폐상퇴비 중에 항균력을 가지는 미생물의 분포는 달랐지만 분리균의 상당수가 검은무늬병(Alternaria brassicicola), 역병(Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici), 탄저병(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) 등에는 강한 항균력을 보였다. 또한 분리 미생물 중 45.8%가 고추 근권에 정착하는 능력을 보였고, 이들 중 5.8%는 $5{\times}10^2cfu\;root^{-1}$ 이상 정착 능력을 보였다. 미생물처리시 균주의 62.7%가 고추 생장을 촉진시켰고, 뿌리 또한 무처리에 비해 생장이 왕성하였다. 폐상퇴비 추출물의 고추 종자 발아 및 생육정도를 조사한 결과 양송이버섯을 정상적으로 수확하고 폐상한 퇴비는 고추의 발아에 전혀 지장이 없었지만 버섯을 거의 수확하지 못한 폐상퇴비의 경우 고추의 발아에 심각한 문제가 발생하였고, 포트시험 결과도 버섯을 거의 수확하지 못한 폐상퇴비를 처리한 경우 고추의 발아 및 생육이 전혀 이루어지지 않았다. 폐상퇴비를 멸균 및 비멸균 조건으로 실험한 결과 폐상시기에 관계없이 멸균시료에 비해 비멸균 시료에서 고추의 생육이 왕성하였다.

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the feasibility for the use of environmental-friendly materials and the effective recycling of spent mushroom compost(SMC) after cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. SMC of white button mushroom contained diverse microorganisms including fluorescent Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Tricoderma sp. and Actinomycetes. These isolates showed the extensive antifungal spectrum against plant pathogen. Among of the isolates, fungal pathogen such as Alternaria brassicicola, Phytophtora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and Colletotichum gloeosporioides strong showed strong antagonistic activity. 45.8% of the isolates were actively colonized on the pepper root and 5.8% showed rhizosphere competent of >$5{\times}10^2cfu\;root^{-1}$. The plant growth promotion ability of the collected isolates were tested in pot experiments using red pepper seedling. Among them, 62.7% showed pepper growth promoting ability and growth of pepper root showed superior to the control. The germination of pepper treated with aqueous extracts of non-harvest SMC completely inhibited at concentration of more than 33%. The sterilization of SMC resulted in higher inhibition of germination and early growth of pepper. These results suggest that spent mushroom compost(SMC) of Button Mushroom may have adequately the feasibility for the use with environmental-friendly materials.

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