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토양의 유효태 인산과 치환성 양이온의 다성분동시추출 분석방법 비교

Comparison of Multi-element Extraction Methods to Determine Available Phosphate and Exchangeable Cations of Korean Soils


과학영농과 친환경농업이 대두되면서 토양검정량이 급속하게 증가하고 이에 대처하기 위해 신속하게 분석할 수 있는 분석 방법이 요구되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 신속 간편하게 분석할 수 있는 다성분동시 추출방법으로 개발된 Mehlich III법, Mod. Morgan법, Kelowna 법과 국내에서 사용 중인 유효태 인산 분석법인 Lancaster법, 치환성 양이온 분석법인 1M $NH_4OAc법으로 분석되는 분석치들 간의 상관관계를 검토하기 위하여 토양특성이 다양한 우리나라 농경지 115개소에서 토양을 채취하여 여러 가지 방법으로 화학적 분석을 실시하였다. 다성분동시추출 분석방법인 Mehlich III법, Mod. Morgan법, Kelowna법과 기존의 유효인산 분석방법인 Lancaster법과 치환성 양이온 분석방법인 1M $NH_4OAc법으로 추출한 분석치는 모두 고도로 유의한 직선적인 상관관계에 있었다. 유효인산은 Mehlich III법, Mod. Morgan법, Kelowna 법과 Lancaster법으로 추출되는 분석치간에 결정계수($R^2) 의 크기는 Mehlich III법($0.979^{***}$) > Kelowna법 ($0.977^{***}$) > Mod. Morgan법($0.553^{***}$)의 순으로 Mehlich III 법 이상관이 가장 높게 나타났고 Lancaster 법보다 토양 중의 인산을 평균적으로 28% 많이 추출하였다. 치환성 양이온에서도 화산회 토양에서 추출되는 나트륨 성분을 제외하고는 Mehlich III 법으로 추출되는 분석치가 1M $NH_4OAc법으로 추출되는 것과 가장 상관이 높았다. 따라서 ICP를 이용하여 유효인산과 치환성 양이온의 분석은 다성분동시추출방법인 Mehlich III법이 이용 가능할 것으로 판단되었다.


Soil testing is one of the best management practices for sustainable agriculture. Recently, as increasing soil testing needs, simplification of soil analytical procedure has been required. To determine recommendable multi-element extractant, the soil testing results of available phosphate and exchangeable cations between the conventional methods (Lancaster and 1M $NH_4OAc) and multi-element extraction methods such as Mehlich III, Modified Morgan and Kelowna methods were compared. There were highly significant correlation between the conventional methods and multi-element extraction methods (Mehlich III, Modified Morgan and Kelowna) for available phosphate and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Na. The coefficients of determination ($R^2) between available phosphate extracted by Lancaster method and multielement extraction methods were in the order of Mehlich III ($0.979^{***}$) > Kelowna ($0.977^{***}$) > Modified(Mod.). Morgan ($0.553^{***}$). For exchangeable cations, there were highly significant correlations between 1M $NH_4OAc method and Mehlich III, Mod. Morgan and Kelowna. However, exchangeable K, Ca and Mg by Mehlich III method were more highly correlated with conventional method than other methods. Therefore, Mehlich III extraction method could be recommended as a single extractant for simultaneous measurement using ICP in the analysis of avaliable phosphate and exchangeable cations.

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