Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective opinions of first-generation Korean-Americans about survival. Methods: The Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. The 34 selected Q-statements from each of 38 subjects were classified into a shape of normal distribution using a 9 point scale. The collected data was analyzed using a QUANL/WIN program. Results: Four types of survival attitudes from 38 first-generation Korean-Americans were identified. Type I was a satisfaction type based on belief, Type II was an effort type based on purpose, Type III was an isolation type based on ethnicity, and Type IV was a compromise type based on adaptation. Results of this study indicate that approaches to a minority's survival strategies need to be differentiated taking this typology and various subject characteristics into account. Conclusion: This information may provide a basic understanding for healthcare providers who work with first-generation Korean-Americans.
Barry, D. T. (2005). Measuring acculturation among male Arab immigrants in the United States: An exploratory study. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(3), 179-184.
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation: In: Chun K, Balls-Organista P, Narin G, ed. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement and applied research. Washington, DC: APA Press.
Bhattacharya, G. (2008). Acculturating Indian immigrant men in New York city: Applying the social capital construct to understand their experiences and health. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 10, 91-101.
Cadge, W., & Ecklund, E. H. (2007). Immigration and religion. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 359-379.
Cho, G. H. (2007). The confucian origin of the East Asian collectivism. Journal of Korean Psychology, 21, 21-54.
Cho, M. O. (2008). Aging and temporality of aged in a clan. Journal of Korean Academy of Adult Nursing, 20(2), 280-295.
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Gruen, R. J., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, 571-579.
Hahn, D. W. (2006). Correlates of subjective well-being in Korean culture. Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, 12, 45-79.
Hovey, J. D. (2000). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among central American immigrants. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30(2), 125-139.
Jang, Y. R., Chiriboga, D. A., & Kim, G. Y. (2006). Acculturation and manifestation of depressive symptoms among Korean American older adults. Korean Journal of Research in Gerontology, 15, 51-73.
Kao, G., & Tirienda, M. (1998). Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education, 3, 349-384.
Kim, E. J., & Wolpin, S. (2008). The Korean American family: Adolescents versus parents acculturation to American culture. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(3), 108-116.
Kim, H. G. (1992). Understanding of Q-methodology for the study of subjectivity. The Seoul Journal of Nursing, 6, 1-10.
Kim, S. J., Lee, S. H., Kim, S. Y., Kim, A. L., Park, H. T., & Lee, Y. J. (2008). Migrant workers' quality of life related to health. Journal of Korean Academy of Adult Nursing, 20(5), 791-803.
Koo, J. S., & Kim, U. C. (2006). Happiness and subjective well-being among Korean students and adults: Indigenous psychological analysis. Korean Journal of Psychological and Social Issues, 12, 77-100.
Lee, S. R. (2008). The nature of social personality. Seoul: Davinchihouse.
Lee, Y. H., Choi, B. A., & Chi, Y. S. (2004). Guidelines for happiness: Lessons from the cases the "happy family story contest". Journal of Korean Home Management Association, 23, 41-51.
Leininger, M. M. (1988). Leininger's theory of nursing: Cultural care diversity and universality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 152-160.
Nate (2009-a, October). Nate Korean dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2009, from the Nate Web site: http//alldic.nate.com/search/krdic.html
Nate (2009-b, October). Nate English English dictionary. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from the Nate Web site: http//search.nate.com / search / eedic.html
Oh, Y. J., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E. (2002). Acculturation, stress, and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in the United States. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 511-526.
Oman, D., & Reed, D. (1998). Religion and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. American Journal of Public Health, 88(10), 1469-1475.
Park, S. Y., & Bernstein, K. S. (2008). Depression and Korean American immigrants. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 22, 12-19.
Porter, J. R., & Washington, R. E. (1993). Minority identity and self-esteem. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 139-161.
Raijman, R., & Tienda, M. (2003). Ethnic foundations of economic transactions: Mexican and Korean immigrant entrepreneurs in Chicago. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26, 783-801.
Sanders, J. M. (2002). Ethnic boundaries and identity in plural societies. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 327-357.
Shin, H. S., Han, H. R., & Kim, M. T. (2007). Predictors of psychological well-being amongst Korean immigrants to the United States: A structured interview survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, 415-426.
Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. Washongton, DC: National Academies Press.
Stephenson, W. (1982). Q-Methodology, interbehavioral psychology and quantum theory. The Psychological Record, 3, 238-248.
Yoon, I. J. (2003). The Korean diaspora: Migration, adaptation, and identity of overseas Koreans. Korean Sociology, 37, 101-142.
이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)
Jo, Kae-Hwa ; Sohn, Ki-Cheul 2011. "A Phenomenological Study on the Restoration Experience of Korean Elders in America toward Suicide Ideation" 성인간호학회지 = Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 23(1): 72~86