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Abstract

Purpose: Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a family of heat-labile cytotoxins produced by several gram-negative mucosa-associated pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. CDT is well known to be capable of inducing growth arrest, morphological alterations, and eventually death in various cells. CDT belongs to a tripartite $AB_2$ toxin (CdtB: the enzymatic A subunit; CdtA and CdtC: the heterodimeric B subunit). Previous studies proposed that CdtA and CdtC together bind to a cell surface receptor and glycolipids act as a receptor for A. actinomycetemcomitans CDT (AaCDT). In this study, recombinant CdtA and CdtC proteins of AaCDT were co-expressed in a bacterial expression system and tested for their affinity for $GM_1$ ganglioside. Methods: The genes for CdtA and CdtC from A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 were utilized to construct the expression vectors, pRSET-cdtA and pET28a-cdtC. Both CdtA and CdtC proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then purified using hexahistidine (His6) tag. The identity of purified protein was confirmed by anti-His6 antibody and monoclonal anti-CdtA antibody. Furthermore, the affinity of recombinant protein to $GM_1$ ganglioside was checked through ELISA. Results: Recombinant CdtA and CdtC proteins were expressed as soluble proteins and reacted to anti-His6 and monoclonal anti-CdtA antibodies. ELISA revealed that purified soluble CdtA-CdtC protein bound to $GM_1$ ganglioside, while CdtA alone did not. Conclusions: Co-expression of CdtA and CdtC proteins enhanced the solubility of the proteins in E. coli, leading to convenient preparation of active CdtA-CdtC, a critical material for the study of AaCDT pathogenesis.

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