The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different types and levels of prebiotics on intestinal microflora and fermentation products in the in vitro fermentation model. The prebiotcs used in this study were IMO (iso-malto oligosaccharide), CI (partially digested chicory-inulin), RA (raffinose) and CD (cyclodextrin). Experimental diet for growing pigs was predigested by digestive enzymes and this hydrolyzed diet was mixed with buffer solution containing 5% fresh swine feces. Then, the mixture was fermented with or without prebiotics at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% for 24 h. Samples were taken at 24 h, and viable count of micoflora, gas, pH, volatile organic compounds and short-chain fatty acids were determined. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in all treatments added with prebiotics in comparison to control without prebiotics. However, the increase of lactic acid bacteria was observed in the prebiotics treatment. Gas production increased as the level of prebiotics increased. The pH values in the fermentation fluid decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing the concentration of prebiotics. The fermentation with prebiotics resulted in the reduction of malodorous compounds such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, indole and skatole. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was observed in the treatments with prebiotics. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that the fermentation with prebiotics was effective in reducing the formation of malodorous compounds and increasing lactic acid bacteria and SCFA. These effects depended on the concentration of prebiotics. Moreover, further study is needed to determine whether the in vitro efficacy on the reduction of malodorous compounds and increase of SCFA would also be observed in animals.
Boisen, S. and Fernandez, J. A. 1995. Prediction of the apparent ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in feedstuffs and feed mixtires for pigs by in vitro analyses. Animal feed science and technology. 51:29-43.
Buddington, R. K. 2001. The use of nondigestible oligosaccharides to manage the gastrointestinal ecosystem. In: Gut Environment of Pigs. Nottingham University Press. pp 133-147.
Buddington, R. K., Williams, C. H., Chen, S. C. and Witherly, S. A. 1996. Dietary supplement of neosugar alters the fecal flora and decreases activities of some reductive enzymes in human subjects. American J. Clin. Nutr. 63:709-716.
Chaney, A. L and Marbach. E. P. 1962. Modified regent for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Cheistry. 8:131-139.
Delzenne, N. M. and Roberfroid, M. R. 1994. Physiological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides. Lebensm-Wiss. Technol. 27:1-6.
Delzenne, N. and Williams, C. M. 2002. Prebiotics and lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 13:61-67.
Ferorak, P. M. and Hrwdey, S. E. 1983. A simple apparatus for measuring gas production by methanogenic cultures in serum bottles. Environ. Technol. Lett. 4:425.
Flickinger, E. A., Wolf, B. A., Garleb, K. A., Chow, J., Leyer, G. J., Jhons, P. W. and Fahey, G. C. Jr. 2000. Glucose-based oligosaccharides exhibit different in vitro fermentation patterns and affect in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility and microbial populations in dogs. J. Nutr. 130:1267-1273.
Gibson, G. R., Beatty, E. B., Wang, X. and Cummings, J. K. 1995. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology. 108:975-982.
Gottschalk, G. 1979. Bacterial fermentation. In: Bacterial Metabolism. pp. 167-224. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hill, M. J. 1983. Bacterial adaptation to lactase deficiency. In : Milk Intolerance and Rejection. pp. 22-26. Basel: Karger.
Imoto, S. and Namioka, S. 1978. VFA production in the pig large intestine. J. Anim. Sci. 47:467-478.
Levrat, M. A., Remesy, C. and Demigne, C. 1993. Influence of inulin on urea and ammonia nitrogen fluxes in the rat cecum: Consequences on nitrogen excretion. J. Nutr. Biochem. 4:351-356.
Mackie, R. I., Stroot, P. G. and Varel, V. H. 1998. Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odor components in livestock waste. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1331-1342.
Massi, M., Ioan, P., Budriesi, R., Chiarini, A., Vitali, B., Lammers, K. M., Gionchetti, P., Campieri, M., Lembo, A. and Brigidi, P. 2006. Effects of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal motility in guinea-pig isolated tissue. World J. Gastroenterol. 12:5987-5994.
Martin Del Valle, E. M. 2004. Cyclodextrins and their uses : a review. Process Biochemistry 39:1033-1046.
McDougall, E. T. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The compositon and output of sheep's saluva. Biochem. J. 43:99-109.
Mroz, Z., Moeser, A. J., Vreman, K., van Diepen, J. T., van Kempen, T., Canh, T. T. and Jongbloed, A. W. 2000. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:3096-3106.
Rao, V. 2001. The prebiotic properties of oligofructose at low intake level. Nutrition Research. 21:843-848.
Rideout, T. C., Fan, M. Z., Cant, J. P., Warner, R. and Stonehouse, P. 2004. Excretion of major odor causing and acidifying compounds in response to dietary supplementation of chicory inulin in growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1678-1684.
Roediger, W. E. W. 1982. Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon. Gastroenterology. 83:424-432.
Rowland, I. R. and Tanaka, R. 1993. The effects of transgalatosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with human faecal microflora. J. App. Bacter. 74:667-674.
SAS. 1996. SAS user guide. Release 6.12 edition, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Stewart, C. S., Hillman, K., Maxwell, F., Kelly, D. and King, T. P. 1993. Recent advances in probiotics for pigs. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. pp 197-220.
Tuohy, K. M., Finlay, R. K., Wynne, A. G. and Gibson, G. R. 2001a. A human volunteer study on the prebiotic effects of HP-inulin-Faecal bacteria enumerated using fluorescent in situ hudrolysed guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides: a human volunteer study. British J. Nutr. 86:341-348.
Tuohy, K. M., Kolida, S., Lustenberger, A. and Gibson, G. R. 2001b. The prebiotic effects of biscuits containing partially hydrolyzed guar gum fructooligosaccharides-A human volunteer study. British J. Nutr. 86:341-348.
Wang, X. and Gibson, G. R. 1993. Effect of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75:373-380.
Willing, S., Losel, D. and Claus, R. 2005. Effect of resistant potato starch on odor emission from feces in swine production units. Agric. Food. Chem. 53(4):1173-8.
Younes, H., Coudray, C., Belanger, J., Demigne, C., Rayssiguier, Y. and Remesy, C. 2001. Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats. Br. J. Nutr. 86:479-485.