기업에서 경쟁이 심화됨에 따라 경쟁력의 원천 중 하나로 주목받고 있는 것이 지식이다. 이러한 지식자원을 공유하고 활용하기 위해서 국내외 지식경영을 수행하는 많은 기업들은 CoP(Community of Practice)를 운영하고 있다. 최근에 기업에서 운영하는 CoP는 본래의 비공식적이며 자발적인 성격에서 벗어나 조직의 전략적인 목적을 달성하기 위해 경영진들에 의해서 주도되며 공식적인 지원을 받고 있다. 하지만 기업의 이러한 전략적 운영은 본래의 성격에서 벗어날 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 CoP 참여자의 자발성마저 저해하는 상황이다. 특히 CoP 참여자마다 개인적 특성으로 인하여 참여동기와 선호하는 보상 유형에 차이가 있기 때문에 CoP 운영에 있어서 많은 주의가 필요하다. 본 연구는 CoP를 운영하는 기업 내 CoP 참여자 114명의 설문분석을 통하여 참여동기와 보상유형을 살펴보고, 참여동기-보상 간의 적합성이 어떻게 참여자들의 CoP 몰입과 지식공유활동에 영향을 끼치는 것인지를 실증분석하였다. 분석 결과, 즐거움, 호혜성, 심리적 보상, 금전.지위보상 등이 참여동기-보상 적합에 영향을 끼치는 것으로 나타났고, 이러한 동기-보상 적합이 CoP 몰입을 이끌며, 궁극적으로 몰입이 지식공유활동에 긍정적 영향을 끼쳤다. 즉, 내적동기, 외적동기, 내적보상 및 외적보상들이 상호 복합적으로 연관작용하여 CoP 몰입과 지식공유활동에 영향을 끼친다는 점에서 기업들은 CoP 활성화를 위하여 동기적 측면과 보상적 측면을 충분히 고려해야 할 것이다.
As the business competition between firms is getting intense, one of the sources of competitive advantage is effectively and efficiently to create, share, and apply information/knowledge among employees. Most of the firms which conduct knowledge management are operating a Community of Practice(CoP) in order to create, share and utilize this kind of information/knowledge resource. Recently, the CoP is getting out of its informal and spontaneous manner and is beginning to be led by the top management, receiving official support, in order to achieve the organization's strategic goals. However, the corporation's strategic operation of the CoP is not only against its original characteristics but also hampers the spontaneity of its participants. Every participant has different motivation to participate and different preference for reward type. This study, with the survey of 114 respondents, found that intrinsic motivation as well as extrinsic motivation significantly affect the motivation-reward fitness. Also, the motivation-reward fit was found to influence CoP commitment which ultimately leads to knowledge sharing activity in the CoP context. This research will help knowledge management companies to figure out how the two things of participants' motivation and their reward types can fit together, and how such fitness ultimately affects the participants' commitment and their knowledge sharing activities.
A. Bandura, ‘Social Foundations of Thought and Action’,Prentice-Hall, 1986.
H. S. Becker, “Notes on the Concept of Commitment,” The American Journal of Sociology, Vol.66, pp.32-40, 1960.
G. W. Bock and Y. G. Kim. “Breaking the Myths of Rewards:An Exploratory study of Attitudes About Knowledge Sharing,” Information Resources Management Journal,Vol.15, No.2, pp.14-21, 2002.
G. W. Bock, Y. G. Kim, R. W. Zmud, and J. N. Lee, “Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social- Psychological Forces, and Organization Climate,” MIS Quarterly, Vol.29, No.1, pp.87-111, 2005.
R. L. Daft and R. M. Steers, ‘Organizations A Micro/Macro approach’, Scott, Foresman and Company, 1986.
F. D. Davis, R. P. Bagozzi, and P. R. Warshaw, “Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Use Computers in the Workplace,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol.22, No.14, pp.1111-1132, 1992.
F. D. Davis, “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and User Acceptance of Information Technology,” MIS Quarterly, Vol.13, No.3, pp.319-339, 1989.
E. L. Deci, ‘Intrinsic Motivation’, New York Plenum, 1975.
B. S. Frey and M. Osterloh, ‘Successful Management by Motivation: Balancing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives’, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2002.
M. A. Von Glinow, ‘The New Professionals: Managing Today’s High-Tech Employees,’ University of Southern California, 1988.
D. L. Goodhue and R. L. Thompson, “Task-Technology Fit and Individual Performance,” MIS Quarterly, Vol.19, No.2, 1995, pp.213-236.
J. Greenberg, ‘Oedipus and Beyond; A Clinical Theory’, Harvard University Press, 1991.
H. Hall, “Social Exchange for Knowledge Exchange, Paper Presented at Managing Knowledge Management: Convertsations and Critiques,” University of Leicester Management Center, April, pp.10-11, 2001.
T. W. Gruen, J. O. Summers and F. Acito, “Relationship Marketing Activities, Commitment, and Membership Behaviors in Professional Associations,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.64, pp.34-49, 2000.
G. T. Gundlach, R. S. Achrol, and J. T. Mentzer, “The Structure of Commitment in Exchange,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.59, pp.78-92, 1995.
A. K. Gupta and V. Govindarajan, “Knowledge Management’s Social Dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel,” Sloan Management Review, pp.71-80, 2000.
M. T. Hansen, “The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.44, pp.82-111, 1999.
D. G. Hoopes and S. Postrel, “Shared Knowledge, Glitches and Product Development Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol.20, pp.837-865, 1999.
M. Igbaria, T. Guimaraes and G. Davis, “Testing the Determinant of Microcomputer Usage via a Structural Equation Model,” Journal of Management Information System, Vol.11, No.4, Spring, pp.87-114, 1995.
M. Ipe, “Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: A Conceptual Framework,” Human Resource Development Review, Vol.2, No.4, pp.337-359, 2003.
C. Kadushin, “The Motivational Foundation of Social Network,” Social Networks, Vol.24, pp.77-91, 2002.
A. Kankanhalli, B. C. Y. Tan and K. K. Wei, “Contributing Knowledge to Electronic Knowledge Repositories: An Empirical Investigation,” MIS Quarterly, Vol.29, No.1, pp.113-143, 2005.
D. Katz, “The Motivational Basis of Organization Behavior,” Behavioral Science, Vol.9, No.2, pp.131-146, 1964.
P. Kollock, ‘The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace, in Communities in Cyberspace’, M. Smith and P. Kollock ED., Routledge, pp.220-239, 1999.
J. Lave and E. Wenger, ‘Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation’, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
E. L. Lesser and J. Storck, “Community of Practice and Organizational Performance,” IBM Systems Journal, Vol.40,No.4, pp.831-841, 2001.
J. E. Mathieu and D. E. Zajac, “A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organizational Commitment,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.108, pp.171-194, 1990.
C. Moorman and G. Zaltman, “Relationships Between Providers and Users of Market,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.29, No.3, 1992.
R. T. Mowday and R. M. Steers, “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.14, pp.223-247, 1979.
K. M. Nelson and J. G. Cooprider, “The Contribution of Shared Knowledge to IS Group Performance,” MIS Quarterly, December, pp.409-429, 1996.
L. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi, ‘The Knowledge Creating Company’, Oxford University Press, 1995.
J. C. Nunnally, ‘Psychometric Theory’, McGraw-Hill, 1978.
R. M. Steers and L. W. Poter, ‘Motivation and Work Behavior’, McGraw-Hill Inc, Fifth ED., 1991.
M. M. Wasko and S. Faraj, “It is What One Does: Why People Participate and Help Others in Electronic Communities of Practice,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol.9, pp.155-173, 2000.
E. Wenger and W. M. Snyder, “Communities of Practice: The Organizational Frontier,” Harvard Business Review, Vol.78, No.1, pp.139-145, 2000.
E. Wenger, R. McDermott, and W. Snyder, ‘Cultivating Communities of Practice: a Guide to Managing Knowledge’, Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
Y. Wiener, “Commitment in Organizations: A Normative View,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.7 No.3, pp.418-428, 1982.