This study examined the effects of Korean red ginseng (RG) on muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise. Eighteen college male students were randomly assigned to either the RG group or the placebo group (P). The RG group ingested RG extract at 20 g/day (mixed with 200 mL of water) for 7 days prior to performing a downhill treadmill exercise and for 3 days after performing the downhill treadmill exercise, while the P group ingested 200 mL of water containing Agastachis Herba for 7 days prior to and 3 days following a downhill treadmill exercise. All subjects performed 2 bouts of a downhill treadmill exercise (6 km, -14 degree slope, 12 km/hr speed) with a 5 minute resting interval between bouts. Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after exercise, and at 1 hr, 24 hr, 48 hr, and 72 hr. Two-way repeated ANOVA documented that creatine kinase (CK) levels in the RG group were significantly reduced at 48 hr after exercise, as compared with P group, and remained constant until 72 hr after exercise. Lactate levels in the RG group were also significantly lower at 24 hr and 72 hr after exercise as compared to the P group. We conclude that supplementation of RGreduces CK levels and may prevent muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise.
Avakian EV Jr, Evonuk E. 1979. Effect of Panax ginseng extract on tissue glycogen and adrenal cholesterol depletion during prolonged exercise. Planta Med 36: 43-48.
Avakian EV, Sugimoto RB, Taguchi S, Horvath SM. 1984.Effect of Panax ginseng extract on energy metabolism during exercise in rats. Planta Med 50: 151-154.
Ferrando A, Vila L, Voces JA, Cabral AC, Alvarez AI,Prieto JG. 1999. Effects of a standardized Panax ginseng extract on the skeletal muscle of the rat: a comparative study in animals at rest and under exercise. Planta Med65: 239-244.
Min YK, Chung SH, Lee JS, Kim SS, Shin HD, Lim BV,Shin MC, Jang MH, Kim EH, Kim CJ. 2003. Red ginseng inhibits exercise-induced increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in dorsal raphe of rats. J Pharmacol Sci 93: 218-221.
Cabral de Oliveira AC, Perez AC, Prieto JG, Duarte ID,Alvarez AI. 2005. Protection of Panax ginseng in injured muscles after eccentric exercise. J Ethnopharmacol 97: 211-214.
Hsu CC, Ho MC, Lin LC, Su B, Hsu MC. 2005. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings. World J Gastroenterol 11: 5327-5331.
Toft AD, Jensen LB, Bruunsgaard H, Ibfelt T, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Febbraio M, Pedersen BK. 2002. Cytokine response to eccentric exercise in young and elderly humans. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283: C289-295.
Zainuddin Z, Newton M, Sacco P, Nosaka K. 2005. Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness, swelling, and recovery of muscle function. J Athl Train 40: 174-180.
Armstrong RB, Ogilvie RW, Schwane JA. 1983. Eccentric exercise-induced injury to rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 54: 80-93.
Hohorst HJ, Arese P, Bartels H, Stratmann D, Talke H.1965. L(+) lactic acid and the steady state of cellular red/ox-systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci 119: 974-994.
Clarkson PM, Hubal MJ. 2002. Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81: S52-69.
Voces J, Cabral de Oliveira AC, Prieto JG, Vila L, PerezAC, Duarte ID, Alvarez AI. 2004. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 37: 1863-1871.
Tiidus PM. 1998. Radical species in inflammation and overtraining. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76: 533-538.
Evans WJ. 2000. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 72: 647S-652S.
Ryu JK, Lee T, Kim DJ, Park IS, Yoon SM, Lee HS,Song SU, Suh JK. 2005. Free radical-scavenging activity of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats. Urology 65: 611-615.
Kim YH, Park KH, Rho HM. 1996. Transcriptional activation of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng. J Biol Chem 271: 24539-24543.c