미생물 발효에 의한 누에분말의 생리활성 작용 및 물질을 개발하기 위한 기초 자료를 얻을 목적으로 Mucor racemosus forma racemosus KCCM 12352, Rhizopus oryzae KCCM 11273, A. oryzae KCCM 11372, A. kawachii KCCM 32819 및 Monascus purpureus KCCM 12002 5종의 곰팡이 균주를 본 실험에 사용하였으며, 이들에 의한 발효 누에분말의 미네랄 함량, 지방산 조성, 단백질 함량, 단백질 패턴, 항산화 활성 및 혈전용해 활성을 비교 검토하였다. 발효 동결 및 열풍건조 누에분말의 주요 미네랄 함량은 각각 칼륨 72.0~76.3 및 77.1~78.9 ppm, 마그네슘 29.6~49.7 및 44.3~58.7 ppm, 칼슘 1.9~14.9 및 9.8~21.6 ppm 및 아연 0.64~0.70 및 4.17~4.52 ppm이였으며, 주요지방산 조성은 linolenic acid, oleic acid 및 palmitic acid 이였다. 발효 동결 및 열풍건조 누에 분말의 단백질을 Native-PAGE로 비교분석 한 결과 발효 동결누에 분말에서 많은 종류의 밴드가 관찰되었으며, SDS-PAGE상의 단백질 패턴 분석에서는 97~66 kDa 중간 정도 크기의 단백질 밴드가 발효에 의해 분해되어 거의 관찰되지 않았다. 발효 동결 및 열풍건조 발효누에 분말의 항산화 활성은 발효전보다 증가하였으나 균주 종류별로는 큰 차이가 없었고, 시판 항산화제 BHT 처리구의 90% 이상의 높은 항산화 활성보다는 낮았다. 혈전용해 활성은 동결 및 열풍건조 누에분말 모두 없었으나, 열풍건조 누에분말의 A. kawachii 및 Monascus purpureus에 의한 발효누에에서 혈전용해 활성이 나타났다. 이상의 실험결과에서 곰팡이 균주에 의한 누에분말의 생리활성 효과 및 이화학적 특성이 발효전 누에 분말보다 강화됨으로써 건강기능식품의 소재로서의 이용 가능성이 높다고 할 수 있다.
Five mold strains - Mucor racemousus, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus kawachii, and Monascus purpureus - were used for the fermentation of both freeze-dried and air-dried silkworm powders. The concentrations of proteins and minerals, electrophoretical protein patterns, fatty acid composition and the activities of fibrinolytic and antioxidation with freeze-dried silkworm (FDSW) or air-dried silkworm powders (ADSW) fermented by the five molds were investigated. The concentrations of major minerals in fermented FDSW and ADSW powders were K by 72.0-76.3 and 77.1-78.9 ppm, Mg by 29.6-49.7 and 44.3-58.7 ppm, Ca by 1.9-14.9 and 9.8-21.6 ppm and Zn by 0.64-0.70 and 4.17-4.52 ppm, respectively. Major fatty acids in fermented FDSW and ADSW powders were linolenic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. There were slightly varietal differences in electrophoretical protein patterns when total protein patterns of fermented FDSW and ADSW powders were analyzed by native-and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). DPPH radical scavenging activity was slightly stronger in fermented ADSW powders than that in fermented FDSW. Fibriolytic activity was only detected in the FDSW fermented by Aspergillus kawachi and Monascus purpureus. These results may provide the basic data to understand the biological activities and chemical characteristics of silkworm fermented by mold, which can be used for the development of functional foods.
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