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여수 연안해역에서 침편모조류 Chattonella속 출현환경 및 영양염에 대한 성장특성

The Effect of Environmental Factors on the Advent of Chattonella (Raphidophyceae) in Yeosu Coastal Waters, Korea, and the Effect of Nutrients on the Growth of Chattonella

Abstract

In order to understand what leads to the appearance of harmful Chattonella algae in the Yeosu coastal waters of Korea, we measured environmental parameters every week at one station from May to November, 2006, and April to October, 2007. Four species of Chattonella appeared during the monitoring period: C. antiqua, C. globosa, C. marina and C. ovata. The range of water temperature and salinity were $15.0-27.9^{\circ}C$ and 17.6~33.0 psu, respectively, when Chattonella appeared, and their maximum cell density (4,840 cells/L) was at $27.1^{\circ}C$ and 33.0 psu. During the monitoring periods, the range of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate (DIP) and chlorophyll $\alpha$ (Chl-$\alpha$) concentrations in surface waters were $1.20-52.23\;{\mu}M$ ($8.59{\pm}8.97\;{\mu}M$), $0.03-1.56\;{\mu}M$ ($0.47{\pm}0.31\;{\mu}M$) and $0.45-31.12\;{\mu}g/L$ ($3.58{\pm}4.77\;{\mu}g/L$), respectively. Chattonella occurred at low cell density when the Chl-$\alpha$ concentration increased because of supplied nutrients, whereas their cell density increased during the periods of rapid decrease in Chl-$\alpha$. The results of growth experiments based on batch culture showed that the half saturation constant ($K_s$) of C. antiqua on ammonium (${NH_4}^-$), nitrate (${NO_3}^-$) and phosphate (${PO_4}^{2-}$) were $3.89{\mu}M$, $5.01\;{\mu}M$ and $0.63\;{\mu}M$, respectively. These Ks values are higher than those reported for diatoms and other flagellates at the DIP concentration (average $0.47{\mu}M$) of Yeosu coastal waters. Although the maximum specific growth rate (${\mu}_{max}$) of C. antiqua was lower than diatoms, it was higher than those of other flagellates. Therefore, our results indicate that the DIP level in the study area was too low to support Chattonella blooms, although Chattonella species have physiological characteristics that enable them to grow more rapidly than other flagellates when nutrient levels are higher than their $K_s$.

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유해조류
우리나라에서 출현하는 유해조류 대발생을 파악하는 데 필요한 것은?
이들을 수용하는 다양한 환경적 요인과 함께 현장 출현과 성장에 대한 연계성을 이해하는 것이 선행되어야 하며, 또한 해역의 생산력을 조절하는 중요한 인자인 영양염에 대한 생리특성을 파악하여 동일 수주 내에서 다른 종과의 공존과 경쟁관계를 이해하는 것은 무엇보다 중요하다고 할 수 있다.

, 2002)이 복잡하게 관여한다. 즉, 우리나라에 출현하는 유해조류의 대발생 잠재력을 파악하고 이해하기 위해서는 이들을 수용하는 다양한 환경적 요인과 함께 현장 출현과 성장에 대한 연계성을 이해하는 것이 선행되어야 하며, 또한 해역의 생산력을 조절하는 중요한 인자인 영양염에 대한 생리특성을 파악하여 동일 수주 내에서 다른 종과의 공존과 경쟁관계를 이해하는 것은 무엇보다 중요하다고 할 수 있다.

Chattonella 종
일본 연안해역에 성행하는 어류양식에 가장 유해한 Chattonella 종은 어떤 것이 있나요?
C. marina와 함께 C. antiqua

antiqua의 대발생이 처음으로 보고 (Park et al., 1988)된 이래 지금까지 우리나라에서 이들에 의한 수산피해는 보고되지 않고 있지만, 일본의 경우 연안해역에 성행하는 어류양식에 가장 유해한 생물중 하나로 C. marina와 함께 C. antiqua가 지목 (Imai et al., 2006)되고 있으며, 이 종들은 C.

식물플랑크톤
해양에서 식물플랑크톤의 분포와 성장은 어떤 요인이 관여하는가?
수온, 염분, 광조건 및 물질 확산 등의 물리적 요인(Epply, 1972; Goldman and Catpenter, 1974; Okubo, 1982; Snchez-Saavedra and Voltina, 1994; Yamamoto and Okai, 2000)과 휴먼포자 형성과 발아, 피식과 포식 및 상호작용 등의 생물학적 요인 (Imai et al., 1998; Jeong et al., 2001, 2008; Park et al., 2009) 그리고 식물플랑크톤 성장에 꼭 필요하며 경쟁ㆍ 공존 등의 종 천이에 영향을 미치는 영양염 등의 화학적 요인 (Tilman, 1982; Donaghay and Osborn, 1997; Anderson et al., 2002)이 복잡하게 관여한다

한편 해양에서 식물플랑크톤의 분포와 성장은 수온, 염분, 광조건 및 물질 확산 등의 물리적 요인(Epply, 1972; Goldman and Catpenter, 1974; Okubo, 1982; Snchez-Saavedra and Voltina, 1994; Yamamoto and Okai, 2000)과 휴먼포자 형성과 발아, 피식과 포식 및 상호작용 등의 생물학적 요인 (Imai et al., 1998; Jeong et al., 2001, 2008; Park et al., 2009) 그리고 식물플랑크톤 성장에 꼭 필요하며 경쟁ㆍ 공존 등의 종 천이에 영향을 미치는 영양염 등의 화학적 요인 (Tilman, 1982; Donaghay and Osborn, 1997; Anderson et al., 2002)이 복잡하게 관여한다. 즉, 우리나라에 출현하는 유해조류의 대발생 잠재력을 파악하고 이해하기 위해서는 이들을 수용하는 다양한 환경적 요인과 함께 현장 출현과 성장에 대한 연계성을 이해하는 것이 선행되어야 하며, 또한 해역의 생산력을 조절하는 중요한 인자인 영양염에 대한 생리특성을 파악하여 동일 수주 내에서 다른 종과의 공존과 경쟁관계를 이해하는 것은 무엇보다 중요하다고 할 수 있다.

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