본 연구는 북한을 탈출하여 한국 내에 정착하여 사는 북한이탈주민이 문화에 적응하는 의미의 본질을 밝히고 이해하고자 질적 연구 방법으로 분석하였다. 연구 참여자는 북한을 탈출하여 한국에 3년 이상 거주한 9명의 북한 이탈주민들로 현재 모두 D시에 살고 있다. 자료 수집은 심층 면담을 하여 녹취하였다. 자료 분석은 Colaizzi의 현상학적 방법에 의해 분석하였으며, 연구 결과 북한이탈주민이 한국 내에 정착하면서 겪는 적응은 3개의 범주와 11개의 주제 모음이 도출되었다. 최종으로 도출된 3개의 범주는 '다른 문화에서 오는 이질감', '탈출 후 다양한 고난을 체험함', '현실을 극복하고자 노력함'으로 도출되었다. 이러한 연구 결과를 바탕으로 한국 내 정착하여 사는 북한이탈주민들이 한국 적응 과정에서 겪는 어려움을 최소화하여 적응할 수 있도록 문제점과 고난 극복 과정에 대해 이해를 도와 적극적인 적응 프로그램 운영이 이루어질 수 있도록 자료를 제공하고자 하였다.
The purpose of this study was to analyze a qualitative research on the essential structure of the acculturation of North Korean defectors, who settled in South Korea. The participants in this study were nine North Korean defectors who had resided in the city of D, South Korea, for three years or more after defecting from North Korea. After an in-depth interview, collected data were analyzed by applying Colaizzi's phenomenological method. As a result, their acculturation were classified into three categories : 'heterogeneity coming from different cultures', 'undergoing various sufferings after defection', and 'trying to tide over the difficulties in the actuality'. And 11 clusters of theme were selected. It's basically meant in this study to find out problems North Korean Defectors encountered and their process of overcoming the difficulties in an effort to step up the acculturation of the new settlers and ease their difficulties. And it's suggested that adjustment programs should be provided for them to fit into South Korean society.
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