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논문 상세정보

반응표면분석을 이용한 청국장 제조시 마늘의 첨가조건 최적화

Optimization of the Addition of Garlic in Cheonggukjang using Response Surface Methodology

초록

마늘을 이용한 청국장의 제조조건을 최적화 하고자 중심합성계획에 따라 마늘의 첨가량($X_1$), 마늘 열처리시간($X_2$) 및 청국장 발효시간($X_3$)을 독립변수로 하고, 점질물 생성량($Y_1$), 산도($Y_2$), 아미노태 질소량($Y_3$), ${\gamma}$-GTP($Y_4$) 및 ABTS 라디칼 소거능($Y_5$)을 종속변수로 하여 반응표면분석을 실시하였다. 점질물 생성량의 정상점은 최대점으로 실제변수인 마늘의 첨가량이 6.53%, 열처리 시간 6.81분, 청국장 발효시간 55.18시간에서 13.02%의 최적 값을 보였다. 산도는 청국장의 발효시간이 길어질수록 증가하였으며, 최소값인 0.50%를 나타내는 마늘 첨가량의 실제변수는 7.75%, 열처리 시간은 3.42분, 청국장 발효는 58.60시간이었다. 아미노태 질소 함량은 80.58~158.82 mg% 범위였는데 정상점은 안장점으로 능선분석을 통해 얻어진 아미노태 질소의 최고값은 156.97 mg%였다. 이 때 마늘 첨가량 및 열처리 시간은 각각 6.21% 및 14.85분, 청국장 발효시간은 58.04시간이었다. ${\gamma}$-GTP 활성은 353.66 mU/mL의 최대값을 가질 때, 마늘 첨가량, 마늘 열처리 시간 및 청국장 발효시간이 각각 5.73%, 6.99분, 57.96시간 이었다. ABTS 라디칼 소거능은 마늘 첨가량과 청국장 발효시간을 낮추고 마늘의 열처리 시간을 높이는 경우 76.43%의 최고값 얻을 수 있었는데, 이에 따른 실제변수의 마늘의 첨가량과 열처리시간은 각각 3.78% 및 14.28분과 청국장 발효시간은 57.99시간이었다. 이상의 결과를 종합하여 볼 때 마늘이 첨가된 청국장 제조를 위해 마늘은 불린 콩 무게 대비 3.78~7.75%로 첨가하되 3.42~14.85분의 범위에서 스팀가열한 후 사용하며, 55~59시간 정도 발효시키는 것이 적합하였다.

Abstract

This study was performed to determine the optimal composition of Cheonggukjang added with garlic. The experiment utilized a central composite design (CCD). The evaluation was carried out by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which included 18 experimental points with three independent variables : the content of the garlic (1.3~9.7%, $X_1$), the steaming time of garlic (0~15.1 min, $X_2$), and the fermentation time of Cheonggukjang (48.2~71.8 h, $X_3$). The viscous substance ($Y_1$), acidity ($Y_2$), amino-type nitrogen ($Y_3$), ${\gamma}$-GTP activity ($Y_4$) and ABTS radical scavenging activity ($Y_5$). were assessed in four replicates with five dependent variables. The maximum content of the viscous substance was 13.02% at 6.53% ($X_1$), 6.81 min ($X_2$) and 55.18 h ($X_3$). The acidity was increased when the fermentation time was longer, and the minimum acidity point was 0.50% at 7.75% ($X_1$), 3.42 min ($X_2$) and 58.60 h ($X_3$), respectively. The content of the amino-type nitrogen at the experimental range studied was was 80.58~158.82 mg%, and the stationary point was at saddle point. Using ridge analysis, the maximum point was 156.97 mg% at 6.21% ($X_1$), 14.85 min ($X_2$) and 58.04 h($X_3$). The optimum conditions of ${\gamma}$-GTP activity was 5.73% ($X_1$), 6.99 min ($X_2$) and 57.96 h($X_3$), respectively, at the maximum point was 353.66 mU/mL. The maximum point of ABTS radical scavenging activity was 76.43% at 3.78% ($X_1$), 14.28 min ($X_2$) and 57.99 h($X_3$) at the saddle point, when the garlic steaming time was longer.

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