This article aimed to introduce 'risk sharing' schemes for pharmaceuticals between drug manufacturers and healthcare payer. Published literature review was undertaken to summarize risk sharing concepts and collect information on existing scheme examples in other countries focusing on new anticancer drugs. Risk sharing schemes could be categorized into health outcomes-based and non-outcomes (financial) based ones. Outcome-based schemes could be broken down into performance-linked reimbursement and conditional coverage. Performance-linked reimbursement can be further broken into outcomes guarantee and pattern or process of care and conditional coverage included coverage with evidence development and conditional treatment continuation schemes. Non-outcome based schemes included market share and price volume at population level, and utilization caps and manufacturer funded treatment initiation at patient level. We reviewed the fifteen examples for anticancer drugs that risk sharing agreements in response to the inherent uncertainties and increased costs of eleven anticancer drugs. Of them, eight cases were coverage with evidence development schemes. The anticancer drugs except bevacizumab and cetuximab were all listed on the national health insurance formulary in Korea, with reimbursement criteria defined on the basis of approved indications and administrations. Risk sharing approach may be a useful tool to ensure values for drug expenditure, but there are a number of concerns such as high administration costs, lack of transparency and conflicts of interest, especially for performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes.
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