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논문 상세정보

대장에서 prebiotics와 probiotics 역할에 대한 조명

Insights into the Roles of Prebiotics and Probiotics in the Large Intestine

초록

현재까지 밝혀진 사실에 의하면 지구상에는 55개 phylum의 bacteria와 13개 phylum의 archaea가 존재하여 총 68개 phylum 있으며, 대장에는 9개 phylum의 미생물이 존재하여 일반 토양환경이나 해양환경에 비하여 상대적으로 낮은 미생물 다양성을 가지고 있다. 장내 미생물의 다양성은 Host의 고유특성(genetic background, sex, age, immune system, gut motility)과 식이(nondigestible carbohydrates fat, prebiotics or probiotics), 항생제 섭취 등으로 인하여 영향 받으며, 이러한 영향이 에너지 저장 과정과 유전자 발현을 영향을 주고 나아가 비만과 같은 대사질환에 영향을 미친다. Probiotics는 숙주의 장내 균총을 개선하여 건강에 유익함을 줄 수 있는 살아있는 미생물을 말하며, 주로 lactic acid bacteria들이 이용되어 왔다. 최근 probiotics를 이용한 설사나 과민성대장증후군 등과 같은 질병 치료를 위하여 bacteriotherapy가 활용되고 있다. Prebiotics는 장내 미생물을 선택적으로 조절할 수 있는 식품 성분으로 inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose 등이 이용되고 있으며, 최근에는 비만, 항암과 관련하여 대장 내 식이섬유소의 이용과 단쇄지방산(short-chain fatty acids) 생산에 대한 관심이 집중되고 있다. 다양한 nondigestible carbohydrates와 prebiotics, probiotics에 의해서 조절되는 대장 내 특정 미생물 종을 규명하고, 이들 미생물 종이 생산하는 단쇄지방산과 같은 대사산물들과 질병과의 연관성 규명하는 대장 미생물 연구가 더욱 필요하다.

Abstract

According to facts revealed up until the present, there are a total of 68 known phyla on earth, including 55 phyla of bacteria and 13 phyla of archaea. The human large intestine has 9 phyla of microorganisms, which is a relatively lower diversity compared to the general environments of soil or sea. The diversity of intestinal microorganisms is affected by the characteristics of the host (genetic background, sex, age, immune system, and gut motility), the diet (non-digestible carbohydrates, fat, prebiotics, probiotics), and the intake of antibiotics, which in turn have an effect on energy storage processes, gene expressions, and even metabolic diseases like obesity. Probiotics are referred to as living microorganisms that improve the intestinal microbiota and contribute to the health of the host; in addition, probiotics usually comprise lactic acid bacteria. Recently, bacteriotherapy using probiotics has been utilized to treat sicknesses like diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics are a food ingredient which can selectively adjust intestinal microorganisms and which comprise inulin, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and lactulose. In recent days, attention has been paid to the use of dietary cellulose in the large intestine and the production of short chain fatty acids (short-chain fatty acids) in relation to obesity and anticancer. More research into microorganisms in the large intestine is necessary to identify specific microorganism species, which are adjusted by diverse non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, and probiotics in the large intestine and to understand the connection between sicknesses and metabolites like short chain fatty acids produced by these microorganism species.

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