The purpose of this study was two folded. The first was to examine relationships among children's self-resilience, their mother's parenting style, family strength and the children's school adjustment and the second was to investigate the relative effects of the three variables on the children's school adjustment. To achieve the purposes, a total of 198 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers were surveyed on children's resilience scale, parenting style scale, family strength scale, and school adjustment scale. As a results, positive relationships among the four variables were observed. Also it was founded that children's self-resilience is the most effective, mothers' parenting style is the second, and family strength is the least factor on school adjustment. From the results the researchers suggested that early intervention is needed to enhance family strength as well as intervention to improve self-resilience in order to increase the children's school adjustment.
학교에 적응을 잘 하는 아동은 학교에 대한 감정이나 태도, 동기가 긍정적이고 대인관계, 학업 성적, 행동특성이 향상되어 청소년기와 성인기까지 성공적인 사회적응을 예측(Chae Ho-Sook, 2008; Lee Hyun-Min, 2005)할 수 있는 반면, 학교에 적응하지 못하는 아동은 낮은 자아존중감 등의 정서적인 문제와 소극적, 공격적 행동 등의 문제행동을 보인다
학교에 적응을 잘 하는 아동은 학교에 대한 감정이나 태도, 동기가 긍정적이고 대인관계, 학업 성적, 행동특성이 향상되어 청소년기와 성인기까지 성공적인 사회적응을 예측(Chae Ho-Sook, 2008; Lee Hyun-Min, 2005)할 수 있는 반면, 학교에 적응하지 못하는 아동은 낮은 자아존중감 등의 정서적인 문제와 소극적, 공격적 행동 등의 문제행동을 보인다(Heck, 1983; Park Jae-San & Moon Jae-Woo, 2006). 그러므로 아동이 학교생활을 하면서 접하게 되는 여러 가지 교육적 환경을 자신의 욕구에 맞게 변화시키거나 자신이 학교생활에 잘 적응하는 데 영향을 미치는 요소를 밝히는 연구는 의미가 있다.
양육 태도를 살펴봄에 있어 모의 양육태도에 초점을 맞추는 이유를 아동 성장 과정에서 가장 밀접하게 상호작용하는 지원체계를 어머니로 보기 때문인데 이러한 양육 태도는 아동에게 어떤 영향을 미치는가?
Yates, Egeland와 Sroufe(2003)의 미네소타 부모-자녀 프로젝트(The Minnesota Parent-Child Project)에 의하면, 일관되고 지지적인 양육에 의한 인생 초기의 긍정적 적응은 아동의 적응에 강력하고도 지속적인 영향을 미친다고 확인되었다.
양육태도를 살펴봄에 있어서 모의 양육태도에 초점을 맞추는 이유는 아동의 성장과정에서 가장 많은 시간을 보내고, 직접적이고 밀접하게 상호작용하는 지원체계가 어머니이기 때문이다. Yates, Egeland와 Sroufe(2003)의 미네소타 부모-자녀 프로젝트(The Minnesota Parent-Child Project)에 의하면, 일관되고 지지적인 양육에 의한 인생 초기의 긍정적 적응은 아동의 적응에 강력하고도 지속적인 영향을 미친다고 확인되었다.
Baek, Hyun-Jeong(1991). Relationship between children's perception of economic hardship, marital conflict, parenting attachment, and children's problematic behavior, Master's thesis, The Catholic University of Korea.
Block, J. H. & Block, H.(1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W.A. Collins(Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Vol. 13(pp. 39-101), Hillsdale, NI: Erlbaum.
Block, J. & Kremen, A. M.(1996). IQ and ego-resiliency I: Conceptual and empirical connections and separates, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349-361.
Byun, Mee-Sun(2005). Elementary students' perception on the relation between parents' rearing attitudes and children's adjustment to school life, Master's thesis, Wonkwang University.
Chae, Ho-Sook(2008). The relationship between ego-resilience, academic failure tolerance, and school adjustment among elementary school students, Master's thesis, Ewha Womans University.
Cho, Gye-Yeun(2006). The relationship among children's ego-resiliency, psychological home environment(parenting behavior, family strengths), and children's behavior problems, Master's thesis, Kyungnam University.
Cho, Myeong-Jin(2012). Relationship between parental behavior of upbringing that children perceive and their sociality and adaptation to school life, Master's thesis, Kangwon University.
Choi, Ji-Eun & Shin, Yong-Joo(2003). A study on adolescents' level of school adjustment by their perceived relationships with parents, peer, and teachers, Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 41(2), 199-210.
Choi, Ok-Hee(2006). Effects of various ecological factors on school adjustment and academic achievement among first-grade children, Doctoral Dissertation, Kyonggi University.
Choi, Seon-Hee(1999). A study on healthy family factors in Korea, Doctoral Dissertation, Yonsei University.
Eo, Eun-Joo & Yoo, Young-Ju(1995). A study on the development of the scale for measuring family strengths, Journal of the Korean Home Management Association, 13(1), 145-156.
Garmezy, N. (1983). Stressors of childhood. In N. Garmezy and M. Rutter(Ed.), Stress coping and development, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Heck, A. O.(1983). The education of exceptional children, NY: McGraw-Hill Book.
Hwang, Jin-Sook.Lee, Eun-Hee.Na, Young-Joo.Koh, Seon-Ju, & Park, Sook Hee(2004). Cyber behavior of adolescents according to family and school factors, Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 42(11), 223-235.
Jung, Eun-Ha(2006). The effects of teacher's behavior and parents' rearing-attitude perceived by children on the children's school adjustment, Master's thesis, Ajou University.
Jung, Ji-Young & Lim, Jung-Ha(2011). Effects of temperament, family strength and social support on ego-resilience of adolescents, Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association, 23(1), 37-51.
Jung, Un-Jin(2002). The relationship among parental child-rearing attitude perceived by elementary school students, self-concept, and school adjustment, Master's thesis, Gyeongsang National University.
Kang, Chang-Sil(2008). The relationships between adolescents' ego-resilience and school adjustment, Master's thesis, Kongju University.
Kim, Hyeong-Soo & Cho,Woo-Hong(2009). Effect of healthy family relationships and school adaptation on internet addiction in teenagers, Studies in Humanities and Social Science, Honam University, 23, 61-90.
Kim, Kyung-Eun & Choi, Eun-Hee(2010). The effect of family strength on adolescents' adjustment at school-focused on mediation effect of selfresilience, Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 19(4), 641-653.
Kim, Mi-Sun(2011). The effects of family strength, positive and negative affect on school adjustment of adolescent in translation, Master's thesis, Hannam University.
Kim, Oc-Seon,.Oh, Yoon-Ja, & Choi, Myung-Goo (2005). Family strengths, ego-resilience and satisfaction with school life perceived by elementary school students, The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 19(3), 761-777.
Kim, Sung-Yeoun(1981). A correlational study among parent's child rearing attitudes children's self concepts and school achievement, Master's thesis, Ewha Womans University.
Kim, Tae-Lyon et al.(2004). Developmental Psychology, Seoul: Hakjisa.
Kim,Yeon-Jeong(2010). The difference of school life adjustment by the level of self-esteem and family strength perceived by elementary school students, Master's thesis, Keimyung University.
Klohnen, E. C. (1996). Conceptional analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 170, 1067-1079.
Ko, Hye-Jin(2003). A study on the relationship between parental attitude and first grader's adjustment in school life, Master's thesis, Gyeongin National University of Education.
Kwon, Ji-Eun & Lee, So-Hee(1999). The meta-analysis of juvenile delinquency variables, Korean Journal of Family Welfare, 4(1), 79-101.
Lee, Eai-Ok(2008). Analysis of the relationship of parenting attitude and social support perceived by elementary school children with children's school adjustment, Master's thesis, Chuncheon National University of Education.
Lee, Hye-Kyong(2009).The relationship of family strength and school maladjustment perceived by adolescents, Doctoral dissertation, Chungang University.
Lee, Hyun-Min(2005). The effects of perception of teacher's behavior and self concept of elementary school children on the school adjustment, Master's thesis, Daegu University.
Lee, Jeong-Oun & Lee, Kyeong-Hwa(2010). Influences of children's perception of , ego-resilience and family strength on school life satisfaction according to their family structure, Journal of Fishries And Marine Sciences Education, 22(4), 621-632.
Lee, Kang-Ok.Lee, Mi-Hyun, & Han, Bock-Hwan (2009). The effects of the parents' nursing attitude on personalities and school adaptations, Korean Business Review, 2(2), 181-201.
Lee, Sun-Young(2008). Effects of ego-resilience enhancement program on ego-resilience, school adjustment and subjective well-being of elementary school students, Master's thesis, Chonbuk National University.
Lee, Sook(1988). Korean parent's child rearing attitudes perceived by their children and the influence of demographic variables, Doctoral Dissertation, Ewha Womans University.
Medinnus, G. R. (1965). Adolescent's self-acceptance and perceptions their parents, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 150-154.
Min, Byeong-Soo(1991). The effects of school adjustment and self-concept on academic achievement, Master's thesis, Hongik University.
Nam, Young-Ja(2009). Impact on juvenile's school adaptation by family strengths: focusing on mediation effect by self-esteem, Master's thesis, Soongsil University.
Olson, D. H. (1996). Clinical assessment and treatment using the circumplex model, In F. W. Kaslow(Ed.), Handbook in relational diagnosis, NY: Wiley.
Olson, D. H., & DeFrain, J. (2003). Marriages and families, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Park, Hyun-Jin(2011). The effects of family strength perceived by early adolescents on school adjustment: Mediating effects of emotional intelligence. Master's thesis, Chongshin University.
Park, Jae-San & Moon, Jae-Woo(2006). The causal relationship of adolescent's family conflicts, selfconcept, and school adjustment as health protection behavior, Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, 23(2), 91-107.
Park, Sang-Hee(2010). A study on the relationship among ego resilience, failure tolerance and school adjustment of elementary school children, Master's thesis, Korea National University of Education.
Rutter, M. (1978). Early source of security and competence. In J. Bruner and A. Garton(Ed.), Human growth and development, NY: Oxford University Press.
Shin, Jeong-Hee(2006). The relation between rearingattitude of parents perceived by child and ego-resilience and school adjustment, Master's thesis, Kookmin University.
Shin, Yun-Ja(2005). The study of relationships among parental child-rearing attitude, self-resilience and school adjustment of elementary school students, Master's thesis, Gongju National University of Education.
Song, Young-Kyoung(2006). Ego-resilience, social support & school adjustment of children, Master's thesis, Chungbuk Univeritty.
Stinnett, N., & DeFrain, J. (1985). Secrets of strong families, Boston: Little Brown.
Werner, E. E. & Smity, R. S.(1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children and youth, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Yates, T. M., Egeland, B. & Sroufe, L. A. (2003). Rethinking resilience: A developmental process perspective. In S. S. Luher(Eds.), Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp.246-266), New York: Cambridge University Pres.
Yang, Kem-Sil(2010). The effects of home environments and perceived family health on children's school adjustment, Master's thesis, Konkuk University.
Yoo, Sung-Kyung, Hong, Se-Hee, & Choi, Bo-Yoon (2004). Mediating effects of ego-resilience, attachment, and existential spirituality between family risks and adaptation, Journal of Korean Educational Psychology Association, 18(1), 393-408.
Yoo, Young-Ju(2004). A study on the development of Korean family strengths scale for strengthening the family, Journal of Family relation, 9(2), 119-151.
이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (1)
강경숙, 함승연, 노정은 2014. "학습부진학생 대상의 학습습관 지도 요구와 실행 정도 간 차이 분석" 水産海洋敎育硏究 = Journal of fisheries and marine sciences education, 26(4): 877~893