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청소년의 부정적 정서에 영향을 미치는 생태학적 요인: 부모학대경험 여부의 조절효과

Ecological Factors Influencing Adolescent's Negative Emotion: Moderating Effects of Parent's Abuse

초록

본 연구는 2011년 중학교 2학년을 대상으로 한국청소년정책연구원이 실시한 "한국 아동청소년 패널조사"의 원시자료를 활용하여(n=2,270명), 생태학적 관점에서 부모학대가 청소년 정서에 미치는 영향을 실증적으로 분석한 것이다. 이를 위해 부정적 정서와 이에 영향을 미치는 환경요인(부모관계, 교사관계, 친구관계, 학교생활)에 관한 경로모형을 설정하고, 부모학대 경험집단과 비경험집단 사이에 경로 차이를 구조방정식모형(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)을 통해 분석하였다. 부모학대 비경험집단(n=1,644명)은 모든 경로가 유의하게 나타나 다양한 경로를 통해 부정적 정서를 완화시키는 반면, 경험 집단(n=626명)은 '교사관계${\rightarrow}$부정적 정서'와 '학교생활${\rightarrow}$부정적 정서'의 경로가 유의적이지 않아 부정적 정서를 완화하는 경로가 제한적이었다. 부정적 정서를 완화하는 총효과가 가장 큰 변수는 부모학대 비경험집단은 '친구관계'인 반면, 경험집단은 '부모관계'이었다. 이는 부모의 학대로 형성된 부정적 정서를 감소시킬 수 있는 핵심요인 역시 부모라는 것을 의미한다. 긍정적인 교사관계가 부정적 정서를 완화하는 효과는 비경험집단과 달리 경험집단에는 존재하지 않았다. 두 집단 모두에서 긍정적인 교사관계는 학교적응도를 높였지만, 이러한 경로를 통해 부정적 정서를 완화하는 간접효과는 부모학대 비경험집단에만 존재했다. 따라서 부모학대 경험집단에 있어 교사와의 부정적 관계는 학교적응에 위험요인일 뿐 아니라, 청소년 정서적 문제를 증폭시키는 요인이 될 수 있음을 시사한다.

Abstract

This study adopts an ecological perspective to empirically navigate the issues surrounding the impact of parental abuse on the emotional development of adolescents. The data is used from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey 2011 (KCYPS 2011), which was conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute (n=2,270). Path models were constructed in which adolescents' environmental mediators (i.e., the relationship with parents, friends, and teachers; and school life) control their negative emotions (i.e., aggressiveness, negative physical symptoms, social weakness and depression); in turn to compare the difference between two groups based on parental abuse by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). As with the non-abused group (n=1,644), all the environmental mediators remained significant to control their negative emotion; whereas, the abused group (n=626) showed no significant pathway from their relationship with teachers and school life to negative emotion. This indicates that the abused group have limited number of the mediators to control their negative emotion than those of the non-abused group. For the non-abused group, the mediator with the highest total effect to control their negative emotion was the relationship with their friends; on the other hand, the abused group's mediator that showed the highest total effect to control their negative emotion was the relationship with their parents. Although the relationship with teachers remained significant as a mediator to affect school life for the both groups, teachers were not significant to control the negative emotion of the abused group. These findings suggest that the negative relationship with teachers in the abused group is a factor to threat the school adaptation of adolescents, which also leads to problems that are related to the emotional development of adolescents.

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