This article aims to provide a design method of warning thresholds for active safety systems based on the performance-based approach considering driver behaviors. Both positive and negative consequences of warnings are considered, and the main idea is to choose a warning threshold where the positive consequence is maximized, whereas the negative consequence is minimized. The process of the performance-based approach involves: Defining the operating scenarios; setting the trajectory models, including human characteristics; estimating the alert and nominal trajectories; estimating the performance metrics; generating a performance-metric plot; and determining the alert thresholds. This paper chose a lane-departure warning system as an example to show the usefulness of the performance-based approach. Both human and sensor characteristics were considered in the system design, and this paper provided a quantitative method to include human factors in designing active safety systems.
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