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논문 상세정보

한국의 예술치료와 호스피스 완화의료

Art Therapy and Hospice & Palliative Care in Korea

초록

한국의 현대적 예술치료는 1960~1970년대 국내 정신과 환자들을 대상의 보조치료인 활동요법(activity program)의 형태에서, 1982년 정신과 의사들을 중심으로 한국임상예술학회가 창립되면서, 음악치료(music therapy), 미술치료(art therapy), 무용치료(dance therapy), 시치료(poetry therapy), 정신치료극(Psychodrama) 등의 예술치료가 정신장애환자를 대상으로 발전하였다. 1990년대에는 한국미술치료학회와 한국음악치료학회 등 분야별 전문단체가 본격적으로 출범하였고, 2001년 한국예술치료학회가 창립되었다. 통합예술치료의 예술은 한 개인의 내적인 세계와 연관된 인간자체가 가지는 본연의 능력인 창조적 활동이며, 여기에는 음악치료, 미술치료, 무용치료, 시치료 등이 포함된다. 통합예술치료는 인간의 체험현상을 그대로 인정하고 자각하게 하는 현상학적 측면에서 신체와 창조성의 회복을 목표로 예술매체를 활용한 심신치료활동이면서 심신의 성장과 발달을 목표로 하는 치료예술활동이다. 최근 국내 음악치료, 미술치료, 무용동작치료, 통합예술치료를 중심으로 예술치료의 효과에 대한 메타분석 결과, 신체기능 효과 변인군을 제외한 모든 변인군에서 효과크기가 유의했고, 심리적응 효과, 행동적응 효과 그리고 생리적 효과 변인군 순으로 효과크기가 확인되었다. 2015년 7월, 보건복지부는 완화의료 건강보험수가 급여를 일당정액제로 시행하면서, 국내 56개 호스피스전문기관에서 대부분 시행중인 음악치료, 미술치료, 원예치료에 대한 수가를 인정하는 방향으로 논의하고 있다. 이것은 1977년 정신과 환자에 대한 예술요법의 수가가 인정된 이후, 호스피스 완화의료 환자에 대한 예술치료의 수가가 인정된다는 데 그 의의가 있다. 그러나, 예술치료매체와 중재유형, 그리고 치료효과간의 인과관계의 명확한 제시, 즉 치료기전의 문제와 무분별하게 발급되는 자격증 취득자의 교육 수련 수퍼비젼을 통한 전문성과 정체성의 문제를 해결하기 위해, 전문학회 및 협회 등 전문단체간의 유기적인 협력과 노력이 요구된다.

Abstract

In Korea, modern art therapy was developed in the 1960s and 1970s in the form of supplementary activities for patients in psychiatry. Along with the foundation of the Korean Association for Clinical Art in 1982 by psychiatric doctors, the therapy involved more various arts forms such as music, art, dance, poetry therapy, and psychodrama. More organizations with specific expertise opened such as the Korean Art Therapy Association, Korean Art Therapy Association, etc. in the 1990s and the Korea Arts Therapy Institute in 2001. As of April 2015, the members of the Korean Art Therapy Association total 15,000, including 6,200 regular members. The arts in integrative arts therapy (IAT) is an individual's creative activity which is related to his inner world, and the forms of IAT include music, drawing, dance and poetry therapy. From the aspect of phenomenology, IAT is psychophysical therapy involving the arts that helps patients recognize and perceive their experiences with an aim of at a recovery of the body and creativity from the phenomenological aspect. It is also a therapeutic activity that targets growth and development of the body and mind. Meta-analysis of the effects of art therapy with a focus on that involving music, drawing, dance movement and IAT in recent years in Korea, significant effects were observed in all factors but physical function. The biggest effect was mentality adaptation followed by activity adaptation and physiology. In the run up to the implementation of the daily flat-rate system for the health insurance reimbursement for palliative care in July 2015, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is reviewing the coverage of music therapy, drawing therapy and flower therapy, which are currently practiced by 56 hospice institutes in Korea. This is a meaningful step because the coverage of hospice and palliative care came after that of art therapy for psychiatric patients was approved in 1977. Still, there is a need clarify the therapeutic mechanism by exploring causality among the treatment media, mediation type and treatment effects. To address the issue of indiscriminately issued licenses, more efforts are needed to ensure expertise and identity of the licensed therapists through education, training and supervision.

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