이 연구의 목적은 초등과학영재와 일반학생이 관찰 상황에서 나타내는 과학적 의문 생성 패턴을 분석하는 것이다. 이 연구에서 과학적 의문 생성 패턴(pattern in generating scientific questions)이란 과학적 의문의 유형(Type of scientific questions)과는 구분되는 것으로, 학생들이 탐구 과정 중 여러 유형의 의문들을 생성해가는 방식을 의미한다. 연구에 적합한 관찰 과제로 사이다 속 건포도, 촛불, 염색된 샐러리 과제를 선정하였다. 그리고 연구의 대상은 전라남도 S시 영재교육원 6학년 과학영재 26명과 같은 지역 시내에 위치한 초등학교 6학년 일반학생 27명으로 하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 초등과학영재와 일반학생이 관찰 상황에서 나타낸 과학적 의문 생성 패턴은 '[패턴 1] 한 가지 유형의 의문 생성', '[패턴 2] 서로 다른 유형의 의문을 차례로 생성', '[패턴 3] 서로 다른 유형의 의문을 반복하여 생성', '[패턴 4] 서로 다른 유형의 의문을 순환하여 생성', '[패턴 5] 서로 다른 유형의 의문을 반복 순환하여 생성'의 다섯 가지로 분류할 수 있었다. 둘째, 초등과학영재와 일반학생은 각각 다섯 가지 패턴을 모두 나타냈으나 그 빈도에는 차이가 있었다. 영재학생들은 [패턴 3]과 [패턴 5]를 주로 나타냈으나, 일반학생들은 [패턴 1], [패턴 2], [패턴 3]을 가장 많이 나타냈다. 이러한 연구 결과는 학생들이 탐구 과정 중 생성한 개별 의문의 유형과 더불어 각 유형의 의문들을 생성해나가는 방식 또한 매우 중요함을 시사한다. 이를 통해 교사들은 학습자의 특성에 알맞은 과학적 의문 교수 학습 전략을 수립할 수 있을 것이다.
This study aims to identify and compare the patterns of scientific questions generation among elementary science-gifted and general students when conducting observational tasks. The pattern in generating scientific questions, which is distinguished from other types of scientific questions, is the manner that students generate a variety of types of questions in an inquiry process. To analyze the patterns in generating scientific questions, the task of observing dry grapes in soda pop, candlelight, and dyed celery were selected as suitable tasks. The subjects were 26 science-gifted students participating in a gifted education program and 27 general students in an elementary school in the same city. They were all sixth graders. The results of this study are as follows: First, the patterns of scientific questions generation among gifted students and general students during observational tasks were classified into five patterns: [Pattern 1] single, [Pattern 2] sequential, [Pattern 3] repetitive, [Pattern 4] circulative, [Pattern 5] repetitive, and circulative. Second, gifted students and general students presented all of the five patterns, but the frequency of the patterns indicated differences between the two groups. The gifted students primarily presented [Pattern 3] and [Pattern 5]. On the other hand, the general students mainly presented [Pattern 1], [Pattern 2], and [Pattern 3]. These results suggest that the ways of generating scientific questions are very much as important as the types of questions. Teachers can establish teaching-learning strategies for generating scientific questions appropriate to learner's characteristics.
관찰과 의문 제기, 연구 계획, 자료 수집 및 해석, 설명 제안, 결과에 대한 의사소통 등을 포함하는 다면적인 활동으로서(NRC, 1996) 학생들이 역동적으로 과학에 참여하는 가장 완벽한 방법
탐구는 관찰과 의문 제기, 연구 계획, 자료 수집 및 해석, 설명 제안, 결과에 대한 의사소통 등을 포함하는 다면적인 활동으로서(NRC, 1996) 학생들이 역동적으로 과학에 참여하는 가장 완벽한 방법이다(Furtak & Ruiz-Primo, 2005). 따라서 국내외 주요 교육기관들에서는 과학교육의 중요한 목표를 학생들의 과학 탐구 능력을 함양하는 데 두고 있다(Korean Ministry of Education, 2008; Rutherford & Ahlgren,1991).
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